Sample History Paper on The Scramble for Africa

The formation of nation-states in Europe was different from that in Africa. In Europe, the emergence of states was witnessed after several years of war and conflict when populations saw themselves as members of a geographically bounded group. In Africa, however, the modern state boundaries were created following a convention of powerful European nation-states in 1884 in Berlin that saw the powers divide up Africa. Unfortunately, the division did not consider indigenous populations and separated tribes, clans, as well as religious and ethnic populations (Griffiths 204). After the Second World War, the newly created African nation-states gained independence but witnessed conflict and bloodshed that is still witnessed today. The primary cause of conflicts in the African continent today is how the continent was divided by the European nation states. Tribes, clans, and rival groups are found in the borders of various countries. There are cases where an ethnic group is split across the borders of three countries. This results in hostilities among the rival groups, tribes, or clans contributing to the numerous conflicts witnessed across Africa today.

The inconsiderate division of Africa also resulted in the uneven distribution of resources. With the new borders, some states had more resources as compared to others. Also, some states were left without access to water, ports, and other important facilities. These prospects explain the uneven economic growth witnessed in the modern era in Africa (Griffiths 213). Nation-states such as Uganda have no access to major seas, oceans, or ports. Thus, the country has suffered economically as it has to depend on other nation-states with access to water or ports. A nation-state such as South Africa is surrounded by a large number of ports hence the economic advantage it enjoys.



Work Cited

Griffiths, Ieuan. “The scramble for Africa: Inherited political boundaries.” The Geographical Journal 152.2 (1986): 204-216,