Sample History Paper on Roman Civilization

The Roman civilization has gone through various political struggles and empires. The Romans formed a government that was a Republic, and many countries including the United States copied that. This began when the Romans decided to overthrow their Etruscan Conquerors who have ruled over them for a long. In 509 B.C.E it was centered at the north of Rome (Blundell, 2016). The wealthy class in Rome who was popularly known as aristocrats dominated the early republic. In the Roman society, they were also known as Patricians.

The Roman Republic was ruled by the top-most position in the government which was two leaders who were popularly known as Consuls. The consuls were elected by the Senate which was composed of Patricians. The lower-class citizens who were also called the Plebeians were not heard in the government at this time. Women had no right to vote in the Roman Republic although they were also citizens of the Republic (Blundell, 2016). According to Roman traditions, the Plebeians and Patricians were supposed to be separated and even marriage between them was prohibited.

Plebeians with time were able to elect their representatives who they were called tribunes. The tribunes later gained powers that enabled them to veto policies that the Senate passed. The plebeians also gradually gained more power in the position of the Consul (Thornton, 2017). The  Patricians could still be able to use the wealth they had to control and influence the elected leaders. The Roman Senate started back in the history of the republic constituting 100  members of the advisory group which later expanded to a group of 300 members. The Patricians later become a powerful governing body and elected the chief executives who were known as Consuls. The Senate was constituted strictly by Patricians who practiced rhetoric and oratory skills to persuade others. They were concerned with making laws in the Curia, which was a large building on the Roman forum grounds. Julius Ceaser later built a large Curia to expand the Senate.

Strengths and Weaknesses of Roman Emperor

It was unfortunate that there were emergency situations which occasionally arose such a war which could require decisive leadership of an individual. During such times, the Consul and the Senate could appoint a dictator who ruled for a time-limited as long as the situation lasted (Thornton, 2017). Ideally, the Roman Republic made a major innovation in the notion of equality under the law. The Roman’s most important laws were curved into twelve Great Tables by the government leaders. The early Roman Republic could often found itself in warfare with its neighbour. For instance, when they were fighting the Carthaginians, Rome was almost conquered.

Carthage which is today known as Tunisia in North Africa, were without fail, trying civilization whose main interest began to conflict with the Romans’. The two parties were engaged in Punic Wars which were three bloody wars (Thornton, 2017).

After the two consecutive wars, the third Punic war, the Rome was willing the Carthaginian threat for food. After the siege of Carthage, the Romans burned that city completely. They later poured salt onto the soil ensuring that nothing would ever grow again. They finally defeated the Carthage. This was, however, a great achievement for Roman Empire (Blundell, 2016). However, the invading vandals could successfully invade and conquer some parts of the Roman Empire due to their strong army which took advantage of stable governance in the Roman Emperor.



Blundell, S. (2016). The Origins of Civilization in Greek and Roman Thought (Routledge Revivals). Routledge.

Thornton, H. (2017). A short history of mercantilism. Routledge.