Effective organizational leadership
Effective organizational leadership is a fundament process that enhances better relationships among employees, creates a foundation for innovative actions, establishes reasons for teamwork and ensures improvement in employees’ performance level (Armstrong 2009). Organizational leadership describes two distinct terms used to identify the sole responsibilities and leading process for improving organizational capacity. Armstrong (2009) believes that organizational leadership structure is well understood from the defining terms, “roles” and “functions”. In other words, we can only understand the significance of organizational leadership if we have insight into the position of a leader in an organizational hierarchy (Armstrong 2009). Similarly, we must be able to understand the activities and processes capable of moving an organization towards accomplishing its objectives and shared goals. In a nutshell, effective and efficient organizational leadership allows for goal attainment, creates opportunity for process adoption and integration alongside facilitating maintenance of organizational assets; both physical and human (Armstrong 2009). Noted in this case, is the higher relationships between effective leadership and employees motivation, which is also a vital process of ensuring growth through improved performance.
This paper focuses on organization behaviour and narrows down to the means through which leadership and motivation are fundamental processes to the organizational performance (Plimpton 2008). The discussion follows an extensive analysis of the roles of Human Resource managers, their strengths and weaknesses, and how their relationships with employees can impact the entire organization and its operations (DuBrin, 2013). This is a study-based case attached to the recruitment, selection, placement and training processes within the hospitality sector.
Organizational leadership is symbolic and figurative in nature, and allows control over organizational assets and other important functions or processes (D’Annunzio-Green, Maxwell & Watson 2004). Organizational leadership is a concept used to distinguish the roles of individuals in an organization while maintain proper control over the entire system. A leadership that is focused establishes visions, missions and other strategic plans to improve the overall business performance (D’Annunzio-Green, Maxwell & Watson 2004); is team building, facilitates conflict management behaviours and advocates for improved long-term relationships among employees and between employees and managers. Employees are consider important part of the organizational asset and their management is crucial to the organization (D’Annunzio-Green, Maxwell & Watson 2004). The Human Resource Managers have the sole responsibility of ensuring proper control of employees’ behaviours, applying appropriate techniques to meet the needs and desires of employees and using diverse skills to improve on the performance level.
Motivation is significantly attached to the psychological influence leaders or an organization has on its employees. Motivation simply put defines growth in behaviour and individuals’ willingness to engage in organization’s functions without coercion or compulsion (Euromonitor International 2012). Employees’ motivation is a concept widely discussed by scholars since it touches on the factors that will create positive behaviour changes and desires to engage more in organization functions (Winstanley & Woodall, 2000). Motivation can either be internal or external, and their effects remain relevant depending on the needs and desires of the employee. Studies conducted on the effect of motivation point to the fact that a motivated employee ensures improved customer relationships and at all times work towards maintain performance standards (Zaccaro & Klimoski 2001). This has a direct link to most business objectives of improved performance standards and profit maximization.
Following the changes in global business settings, prosperity and progress depends to a greater extent on the quality of organizational leadership (Rust Zeithaml & Lemon 2004). Added to the discussions made under the introduction section, we realize that effective leadership in an organization is justified because performances and results occur corollary to the characteristics portrayed by the leader (Rousseau & Schalk 2000). Apart from the NPOs, every organization have the objective growing output levels and maximising profit levels. This means that every investment is directed towards creating better relationships between the management and employees since this has a greater impact on output and profit levels (Rousseau & Schalk 2000).
According to Prince (2004), organizational behaviour is purely psychological and attached to the decisions leaders make to improve economic welfare in relations to other existing firms or businesses. This entails all those behaviour that can be observed by other organizations and experimented against the rising needs of employees and other organizational stakeholders (Pilbeam & Corbridge 2006).
According to Nickson (2007), leadership is an act of providing assistance, direction or guidance to another person with the sole purpose of influencing the person to accomplish a particular task. Organizations value leadership, especially where the leadership style applied helps the organization to achieve beneficial goals at limited costs (Perkins & White 2008). On the other hand Lucas, Mathieson and Lupton (2006) believes on the fact that effective organizational leadership must challenge opportunities, take calculated risks and learn from past experiences and mistakes. It is imperative that a leader be able to inspire employees and other organizational staffs to decisively agree on future directions and outlined in the vision statement (Lucas, Mathieson & Lupton 2006). With this concern, the leaders motivates employees to have shared visions by thinking about the future changes in organization, developing strong positive visions and encouraging each other to take responsibility and add value to the organization (Legge 2005).
Strengths of Human Resource Management in a hospitality sector
According to the discussions made by Hayes and Ninemeier (2009), the strength of Human Resource management in a hospitality sector to lies on the ability to act in relation to the organizational or business needs. The ability to interact with employees and other staff members, collaborate and engage in decision making for the purpose of developing goals improves the efficiency of HRM (Foot, Hook 2011). Such collaborations and teamwork allows HRM to build trust on the employees, engage employees in talent search alongside encouraging one another to explore certain skills and innovative ideas that can improve operations within the organization (Kusluvan 2003).
Human Resource Management is visionary, symbolic and at all times set examples that are consistent with their professional values in order to help employees achieve certain motivating gains, especially when the outcome of a process is not forthcoming (Boella & Gross-Turner 2005). The values and guideline provided by HRM to employees demand consistency in service provision, which can only occur if the employees are committed to ensuring the values are converted into productive activities (Boella & Gross-Turner 2005). Similarly, the strength of HRM lies on the fact that they are consultative, always seeking for the advices of employees and acknowledging individual’s contribution to the overall success of the organization. In recognizing the contributions of employees, the motivational roles of Human Resource Managers become significant. The ability to influence the psychological needs of employees and create positive behavioural changes in a characteristic common to HRM in hospitality sector (Boella & Gross-Turner 2005).
In other words, a motivating HMR facilitates processes by putting employees into action and ensuring that every effort is appropriately utilized in the organization (Boella & Pannett 2003). It is evident that organizational operations depend on acquired physical, financial and human resources. Through proper actions and motivation, the human resources available to the organization can be fully exploited and converted to fulfil the goals of the organization. According to Boella and Pannett (2003), the strength of human resource management is recognized when it establishes a willing environment for the employees to be able to engage in various production processes. The same statement is echoed by Corbridge and Pilbeam (2010) who maintains that the motivational role of HRM must remain concerned with the levels of efficiency of employees, which does not only depend on the level of education, qualifications or abilities, but on the kind of recognitions employees get from the organization. This would mean bridging the gap between ability and willingness in order to improve the performance of subordinates. Improved levels of efficiency among employees increase organizational productivity while reducing the cost and time of operation. With such kind of leadership (Corbridge and Pilbeam 2010), we postulate the best use of resources, a corporative work environment, goal oriented employees who pursue purposive roles as well as simultaneous co-ordination of roles in a way that creates value to the organizational operations.
Weaknesses of Human Resource Management in the hospitality sector
The weakness of Human Resource Managers may not only be lack of knowledge of skills to lead employees, but may also include the attitudinal traits the may limit the relationship between managers and employees Ninemeier (2009). Attitude influences the perceptions managers have towards their employees and where there are negative attitudes, managers exhibit retrogressive behaviours. In many instances, employees have had bad experiences with their managers who find it very difficult to get corrected even if it were in best interest of an individual. HR managers believe on their decisions and may not withstand challenge from employees Ninemeier (2009). With such fixed minds, HR managers tend to establish performance standards that may be unfavourable to employees. Setting performance standards could have both its advantages and disadvantages, especially when some staff members prefer working in a non-standardized type of environment. Another weakness is that HR managers at times may want to assign leadership roles to particular employees in order to make them all-round workers Ninemeier (2009). Assigning leadership roles to specific people within the organization shows the highest level of favouritism, which may have negative impacts on the organizational performance.
With the rising levels of competition in hospitality industry, HR managers are so much concerned with the contributions employees make to the organization without considering the social welfare part of employees. While looking forward to improving business activities in the hotel Ninemeier (2009), HR managers must understand the social needs of employees, which in most cases are ignored. Managers at time lack the skills of relating organizational needs to the demands of employees and in their bid to improve performance by coercing employees, they demoralize and create havoc within the organization. Also noted is the role played by HRM is the recruitment, selection and placement processes within the organization Ninemeier (2009). In this context, the position taken by the manager could give the organization the best workers in terms of skills or may give the organization low quality workers. Organizations face high levels of corruption within the various stages of recruitment leading a reduction in performances.
In general, the organizational leadership must work towards creating a friendly work environment, giving appropriate directions and making relevant decisions that touch on key operational areas (Boella & Gross-Turner 2005). The leadership must take into account the varying needs of employees, maintain regular contact with other stakeholders, communicate objectives and lead by example. Innovation is yet another area that on equal measures (Boella & Gross-Turner 2005), have significant impact on the future performance of an organization. The leadership must concentrate on the skills of employees, open opportunities for innovation, engage staff members on decision making and also allow vocational training for employees (Beardwell & Claydon 2010). Apart from the mentioned attributes, job security is important since improves employees’ commitment to the organization. In other words, an employees would feel motivate if his or her place within the organization is guaranteed (Beardwell & Claydon 2010).
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