Sample Leadership Studies Paper on Cultural Differences In Academic Motivations

Educational achievement and motivation is an essential element of everyday school life. Learners must strive to be competent in their academic disciplines, regardless of whether they are in the classroom or not. Today they are numerous drivers of educational motivation including technology and globalization. In contemporary society, there has been a burgeoning interest in online education around the globe driven by digital information quest and advancement. Learner motivation tends to improve activity levels during learning and increases individual learning energy significantly. While cultural differences in academic motivation is essential, it is also believed to provide valuable study approaches that education facilitators can apply to develop effective online learning between academicians.

Naturally, individuals are ethnocentric since they believe that doing things according to their cultural understanding produces the best results. According to Ahn et al. (2016), online learning motivation provide a global challenge to manage expertise, although it is generally accepted by all no matter their culture. Couger (1986) argues that culturally determined perception and knowledge can further be acted upon and shaped through online learning in schools and organizations. However, Dekker & Fischer, (2008) note that different cultural groups react to stimuli differently. Hence, understanding culture can help learners to manage and determine how team members react and how their learning environment can become meaningful to them (Tan & Miksza, 2018). Therefore, online learning can motivate learners to gain more knowledge and control how they learn.

Cultural motivation in online learning gives the learners empowerment and control. Based on the involvement in the decision-making process, learners can develop self-control, principles, self-direction, and better time management (Gordon et al., 2020). Notably, culture can determine the level of control and empowerment that learning institutions implement in their structure, training methods, and management styles significantly (Isik et al., 2018). Kazakova & Shastina, (2019) mentioned that learners are more likely to discuss their feelings, listen to others with understanding, and learn how to cooperate as well as motivate other learners online. Therefore, motivation differences across collective and individualistic cultures determine the learner’s success significantly.

Highly motivated learners are presumed to continuously seek challenging tasks, derive self-satisfaction from individual mastery and always compete for interesting things. Kumar, Zusho, & Bondie, (2018) argue that since people from different cultures have varying achievements, goals, and different motivations, many of these personality traits are acquired during childhood. According to Lim (2004), the more the individualistic culture of the learner, the higher the level of achievement motivation. Arguably, differences in the level of achievement motivation exist in different types of collectivistic or individualistic cultures (Reeve, Ryan, & Deci, 2018). What more, both individualistic and collectivistic cultures can be predicted by assessing cultural differences. For example, Lockwood, Marshall, & Sadler, (2005) performed a new assessment and reviewed past research on learner’s beliefs and attitudes towards physical education. The author noticed that Asian students are better when they work as individuals, while other students produced better results as a team. So, collectivists perceive achievement in terms of team success, while individualists perceive achievement as personal success.

In the English culture, high levels of individual work among learners were more evident, although team-based learning was attractive to most of them. However, since cooperation can deliver positive effects to a variety of learning stimuli, Miller, Goyal, & Wice, (2017), assert that the application of interaction of learning experiences and a scale that reflects the position of the individual learner can be a solid motivational factor. The scale can be used to evaluate how learners with dissimilar cultural orientations and the effectiveness of training and collaboration contribute to the learning team (Mwangi et al., 2017). In contrast, Niles, (1995) argues that learners with interdependent self-construal bestow power to the team, pay more attention to detail and situational factors, and are collectively motivated. Learners with bicultural backgrounds could have interchangeable agency orientation and self-directed cognitive abilities (Tóth-Király et al., 2017) Therefore, acting under a team can lead others to relinquish social attachments, develop good motivation tactics based on rigid rules and centralized decision-making, as well as obedience to authority.

Like individual learning, organizational learning involves similar phases of information processing, including the dissemination and transmission phases. Individualism in learning institutions manifests itself through activities such as individual-level rewards, autonomy, and individual responsibility for the outcomes (Nishimura & Sakurai, 2017). On the other hand, collectivist motivation activities for learning emphasizes team-based rewards and team solidarity. In different U.S. schools, online learning motivation increased as individualism increased (Zeidner & Elemi, 2019). In contrast, Orellana et al. (2019) note that the reverse was true in Europe, which is a more collectivist society. Hence, individualism and collectivism are different forms of motivations that originate from different backgrounds.

In conclusion cultural differences in academic motivations play a significant role in the learner’s ability to learn. However, individualism is manifested more in adult learning, where there are self-directed learning and individual level satisfaction and rewards. In contrast, collective learning approaches focus on team rewards, achievement, and work unit solidarity.

 

References

Ahn, H. S., Usher, E. L., Butz, A., & Bong, M. (2016). Cultural differences in the understanding of modelling and feedback as sources of self‐efficacy information. British Journal of Educational Psychology86(1), 112-136.

Couger, J. D. (1986). Effect of cultural differences on motivation of analysts and programmers: Singapore vs. the United States. MIS Quarterly, 189-196.

Dekker, S., & Fischer, R. (2008). Cultural differences in academic motivation goals: A meta-analysis across 13 societies. The Journal of Educational Research102(2), 99-110.

Gordon, A., Young-Jones, A., Hayden, S., Fursa, S., & Hart, B. (2020). Dispositional mindfulness, perceived social support, and academic motivation: Exploring differences between Dutch and American students. New Ideas in Psychology56, 100744.

Isik, U., Tahir, O. E., Meeter, M., Heymans, M. W., Jansma, E. P., Croiset, G., & Kusurkar, R. A. (2018). Factors influencing academic motivation of ethnic minority students: A review. Sage Open8(2), 2158244018785412.

Kazakova, J. K., & Shastina, E. M. (2019). The impact of socio-cultural differences on formation of intrinsic motivation: The case of local and foreign students. Learning and Motivation65, 1-9.

Kumar, R., Zusho, A., & Bondie, R. (2018). Weaving cultural relevance and achievement motivation into inclusive classroom cultures. Educational Psychologist53(2), 78-96.

Lim, D. H. (2004). Cross cultural differences in online learning motivation. Educational Media International41(2), 163-175.

Lockwood, P., Marshall, T. C., & Sadler, P. (2005). Promoting success or preventing failure: Cultural differences in motivation by positive and negative role models. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin31(3), 379-392.

Miller, J. G., Goyal, N., & Wice, M. (2017). A cultural psychology of agency: Morality, motivation, and reciprocity. Perspectives on Psychological Science12(5), 867-875.

Mwangi, C. A. G., Daoud, N., English, S., & Griffin, K. A. (2017). “Me and My Family”: Ethnic Differences and Familial Influences on Academic Motivations of Black Collegians. The Journal of Negro Education86(4), 479-493.

Niles, F. S. (1995). Cultural differences in learning motivation and learning strategies: A comparison of overseas and Australian students at an Australian university. International Journal of Intercultural Relations19(3), 369-385.

Nishimura, T., & Sakurai, S. (2017). Longitudinal changes in academic motivation in Japan: Self-determination theory and East Asian cultures. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology48, 42-48.

Orellana, P., Jacques, L., Korkeamäki, R. L., Tafa, E., & Gambrell, L. B. (2019). Motivation to read in grades K–2: a cross-cultural perspective. International Journal of Early Years Education27(4), 423-440.

Reeve, J., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2018). Sociocultural influences on student motivation as viewed through the lens of self-determination theory. Big theories revisited2, 15-40.

Tan, L., & Miksza, P. (2018). A cross-cultural examination of university students’ motivation toward band and academics in Singapore and the United States. Journal of Research in Music Education65(4), 416-438.

Tóth-Király, I., Orosz, G., Dombi, E., Jagodics, B., Farkas, D., & Amoura, C. (2017). Cross-cultural comparative examination of the Academic Motivation Scale using exploratory structural equation modeling. Personality and Individual Differences106, 130-135.

Zeidner, M., & Elemi, R. (2019). ACADEMIC MOTIVATION AND SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT IN A MULTI-CULTURAL SOCIETY. Stress and Anxiety-Contributions of the STAR Award Winners, 15.