Sample Leadership Studies Paper on Cultural Differences In Academic Motivations

Educational achievement and motivation is an essential element of everyday school life. Learners must strive to be competent in their academic disciplines, regardless of whether they are in the classroom or not. Today they are numerous drivers of educational motivation including technology and globalization. In contemporary society, there has been a burgeoning interest in online education around the globe driven by digital information quest and advancement. Learner motivation tends to improve activity levels during learning and increases individual learning energy significantly. While cultural differences in academic motivation is essential, it is also believed to provide valuable study approaches that education facilitators can apply to develop effective online learning between academicians.

Naturally, individuals are ethnocentric since they believe that doing things according to their cultural understanding produces the best results. According to Ahn et al. (2016), online learning motivation provide a global challenge to manage expertise, although it is generally accepted by all no matter their culture. Couger (1986) argues that culturally determined perception and knowledge can further be acted upon and shaped through online learning in schools and organizations. However, Dekker & Fischer, (2008) note that different cultural groups react to stimuli differently. Hence, understanding culture can help learners to manage and determine how team members react and how their learning environment can become meaningful to them (Tan & Miksza, 2018). Therefore, online learning can motivate learners to gain more knowledge and control how they learn.

Cultural motivation in online learning gives the learners empowerment and control. Based on the involvement in the decision-making process, learners can develop self-control, principles, self-direction, and better time management (Gordon et al., 2020). Notably, culture can determine the level of control and empowerment that learning institutions implement in their structure, training methods, and management styles significantly (Isik et al., 2018). Kazakova & Shastina, (2019) mentioned that learners are more likely to discuss their feelings, listen to others with understanding, and learn how to cooperate as well as motivate other learners online. Therefore, motivation differences across collective and individualistic cultures determine the learner’s success significantly.

Highly motivated learners are presumed to continuously seek challenging tasks, derive self-satisfaction from individual mastery and always compete for interesting things. Kumar, Zusho, & Bondie, (2018) argue that since people from different cultures have varying achievements, goals, and different motivations, many of these personality traits are acquired during childhood. According to Lim (2004), the more the individualistic culture of the learner, the higher the level of achievement motivation. Arguably, differences in the level of achievement motivation exist in different types of collectivistic or individualistic cultures (Reeve, Ryan, & Deci, 2018). What more, both individualistic and collectivistic cultures can be predicted by assessing cultural differences. For example, Lockwood, Marshall, & Sadler, (2005) performed a new assessment and reviewed past research on learner’s beliefs and attitudes towards physical education. The author noticed that Asian students are better when they work as individuals, while other students produced better results as a team. So, collectivists perceive achievement in terms of team success, while individualists perceive achievement as personal success.

In the English culture, high levels of individual work among learners were more evident, although team-based learning was attractive to most of them. However, since cooperation can deliver positive effects to a variety of learning stimuli, Miller, Goyal, & Wice, (2017), assert that the application of interaction of learning experiences and a scale that reflects the position of the individual learner can be a solid motivational factor. The scale can be used to evaluate how learners with dissimilar cultural orientations and the effectiveness of training and collaboration contribute to the learning team (Mwangi et al., 2017). In contrast, Niles, (1995) argues that learners with interdependent self-construal bestow power to the team, pay more attention to detail and situational factors, and are collectively motivated. Learners with bicultural backgrounds could have interchangeable agency orientation and self-directed cognitive abilities (Tóth-Király et al., 2017) Therefore, acting under a team can lead others to relinquish social attachments, develop good motivation tactics based on rigid rules and centralized decision-making, as well as obedience to authority.

Like individual learning, organizational learning involves similar phases of information processing, including the dissemination and transmission phases. Individualism in learning institutions manifests itself through activities such as individual-level rewards, autonomy, and individual responsibility for the outcomes (Nishimura & Sakurai, 2017). On the other hand, collectivist motivation activities for learning emphasizes team-based rewards and team solidarity. In different U.S. schools, online learning motivation increased as individualism increased (Zeidner & Elemi, 2019). In contrast, Orellana et al. (2019) note that the reverse was true in Europe, which is a more collectivist society. Hence, individualism and collectivism are different forms of motivations that originate from different backgrounds.

In conclusion cultural differences in academic motivations play a significant role in the learner’s ability to learn. However, individualism is manifested more in adult learning, where there are self-directed learning and individual level satisfaction and rewards. In contrast, collective learning approaches focus on team rewards, achievement, and work unit solidarity.



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