Sample Leadership Studies Paper on Change Management

Introduction

Leadership is the art of influencing people to work towards achieving organizational or group objectives.  There can be no leaders without followers and followers are influenced to follow the leader and combine efforts to achieve the set targets. Effective leadership is an important factor in achieving organizational goals and objectives. Change management is the process of continually renewing a firm structure, direction, and capabilities to serve the changing needs of internal and external customers. Organizational change is an ever-present feature of an organizational life and this is at both strategic and operational levels. This report will discuss leadership and change management in the relationship between Guy’s and St Thomas Hospital.

TASK 1

Identifying and analyzing the situational variables within the organization’s change program over its current and projected life-cycle, and evaluating how leadership approaches have evolved/might evolve, to take account of the changing circumstances and dynamics

 

Situational variables within the organization

Herzberg’s (1964) Theory highlights factors that cause job satisfaction and dissatisfaction which are classified into the hygiene and motivator factors.  Herzberg concluded that existence of specific job factors in relation to the job attitudes is fairly accepted. The most effective and reliable way of retaining people in the workplace is centered on creating a challenging and stimulating work environment and the use of participative management styles. Others factors that ensure that organisations retain employees involves performance management, transfers and promotions, compensation, training and development and benefit programs.

The following are the situational work related variables within Guy’s and St Thomas Hospital change program.

Salary and monetary compensation – Employees are motivated by several factors and one of the factor are the benefits that they get from the organisation where they work in. Guy’s and St Thomas Hospital change program. The program provides a framework that redesigned the workforce working at the trust. Teams that are working at the trust are provided with an opportunity to explore new creative roles with clinical team and this has helped build a sustainable workforce at the trusts. For example, the cardiology work stream at Dartford and Gravesham has used community pharmacists by creating pharmacist-led hypertension clinics and creating opportunities for cardiac physiologists to deliver scans in Dartford. Pay satisfaction is associated with increased organisational commitment and greater intent to stay in the organisation.  The programme also recognizes that employees are critical to the success of change and recruiting the right people with the right skills to the critical roles is important to the success of the programme.

Working conditions and job security- Guy’s and St Thomas Hospital change program creates fear to the employees and therefore ensuring that the working conditions and job security of the employees is safeguarded is a variable that should be dealt with. The change program has proposed change in the way employees work and encouraged flexibility in the workplace. Employees that are working at the hospital are given an opportunity to manage work and family and this has improved their commitment to the change in the trust. Division of employment is core to Guy’s and St Thomas Hospital change program. Employees are allocated roles and responsibilities according to their skills and qualification. Collaboration is encouraged and this provides an opportunity to the employees to share ideas that improve the performance of the trust. The personal traits of employees are monitored and this ensures that those in the leadership have the required skills. Change brings fear to employees and exposure to job insecurity and job loss may have a negative impact on the employees and affect the change process.  Insecure working environment creates anxiety and increases the level of risks to various work hazards for example loss of job control and decreased workplace social control. Guy’s and St Thomas Hospital change program proposes organisational restructuring and downsizing and this has resulted to worse work conditions and loss of autonomy and control.

Learning and development- Learning and development enhance engagement with the workforce. The change program Guy’s and St Thomas Hospital proposes learning and development and creation of a culture of learning. This will ensure that employees are equipped with skills and knowledge that will ensure they give quality health care services to the users of health care services. The change is aimed at creating individual development plan for every employee. To keep jobs interesting most employees want to acquire new skills and knowledge and apply new approaches in their daily work life. The change that is proposed aims to provide opportunities to employees to ensured that they are educated and develop them to meet future challenges and to obtain sustainable advantage in today workplace environment. Learning and development will change the employees trust and attitudes towards change management. The programme has sought to improve joint working between employees in all the functions for example finance and procurement. Staffs have reported that the change has enabled a line of communication

For example over the duration of the programme Guy’s and St Thomas’ and Dartford and Gravesham have shared knowledge regarding commercial contracts, clinical coding, private patient services and much more.

 

Prospects for promotion and aligned growth path- This is a situational variable within the organisation change. The management understands that career commitment describes an individual commitment to a number of work related targets. Development of affective occupational commitment begins with occupational choices and changes that are based on past experiences. Guy’s and St Thomas Hospital management understands that the degree at which it provides career growth  via the activities that meet the career goals develops employees professional. The change programme proposes to provide workers with the activities that enhance their emotional attachment to the firm.

 

Leadership- Leadership is the process of leading followers and ensuring that they are working towards the same direction. Fair leadership support is simply the degree of support that employees receive from the supervisors. A good leader should show employees the direction that they should move towards and provide them with support. A good leader come s up with the vision of the firm and gives feedback to the employees. The organisational change programme of the hospital aims to change the leadership style that is used by the Hospital.  Supportive leaders are employees and they have high competence, they treat employees good and with respect that they deserve. They also encourage two way communications and provide an opportunity to the employees to contribute their views. Leaders at the firm are required to ensure that staffs are treated well.

 

Information technology- Information technology is critical not only organisations that provide health and social care but across all organisations. Guy’s and St Thomas Hospital aims to make changes in the IT work stream and this aims to improve efficiency. The change proposes that the hospital use new methods of treatment that are innovative and that reduce the patients waiting time. The program has highlighted aspects of IT that required to be updated and this has improved service delivery. It has also played an important role in storing records both medical and patients records.

Work related attitudes- The change program of Guy’s and St Thomas Hospital aims to improve work related attitudes for example job involvement, job satisfaction and organisational commitment.  These are the important aspects that managers should enhance to improve the performance of the firm. Managers are working hard to change the attitudes of staff and this is by communicating and informing staff with the hospital values and this will change the behaviour of employees towards change. Change in the organisational culture will improve service delivery. Cultures are the shared assumptions, norms and values. The culture of an organisation is a source of sustained competitive advantage. Organisational culture is linked to the employee’s behaviours and attitudes.

Evaluate how leadership approaches have evolved/might evolves, to take account of the changing circumstances and dynamics.

 

Leadership approaches have evolved and it is important for leaders to use the different leadership theories or approaches to understand how the different situations that they encounter affect their leadership style. This will ensure that they are effective when leading change in the organisations where they work. Leaders are required to influence the actions, beliefs and the feelings of other people. Effective leadership requires that a leader in an organisation has qualities and skills that enable him to connect with the people and with their needs. The complexity of leadership is reflected in the evolution of leadership in the past over 80years. The early leadership theories focused on the qualities and behaviors of leaders. Leadership theory has evolved and has greator understanding on the needs and expectations of employees at work. The impact of the leadership style on followers and how attitudes, behaviors and competencies of the followers impact on leaders. Effective leadership style is different in different situations that the leaders encounter. Today leaders are required to understand the expectations of people that they lead and to be consulted and involved in making decisions. At the same time to have the autonomy to achieve the objectives set in the way that they see is effective.  Change in leadership at Guy’s and St Thomas Hospital has improved the decision making and employee’s commitment to the trust. Leaders at the Hospital use various leadership styles depending on the situation. The trait approach of leadership states that leaders are born and that leadership consists of inherited personality traits. The functional approach to leadership states that leaders can be learned and developed.  The approach focuses on the responsibilities of a leader and examines how leader’s behaviour is affected by his followers. One functional approach of leadership is Adair’s Action centred leadership that focus on what organisational leaders do to balance needs of individuals, tasks and the team.  The leadership styles focus on how leaders impact on those that they lead. For example democratic leadership is where a leader allows people to participate in decision making and their views are considered when making a decision. Leaders at Guy’s and St Thomas Hospital ensure that employees participate in decision making and this provides an opportunity for the employees to interact and share information. This improves employee engagement and commitment and enables them to support organisational change. Situational and contingency leadership also has enabled the management and leadership of Guy’s and St Thomas Hospital to adapt to different leadership styles on different situations. Transactional and Transformational leadership is an approach that looks at two levels of leadership. Transactional leadership appeals to the self-interest of followers to achieve organisational goals. This is based on the leader position in the organisational structure. Transformational leadership takes steps and creates vision on transforming the performance of a company and its appeal to the highest values of an organization. Leaders are supposed to use different leadership approach to the changing dynamics in the workplace. This will ensure that employees support change and are working towards achieving the organisational set targets

Task 2

Assess how the leaders of this organisation might influence the attitudes of its members to support the proposed changes, using narrative and storytelling as a mechanism

Successful leaders are required to have good leadership skills to manage change and this will ensure that they influence the attitudes of employees. Leaders are required to communicate effectively with the people so that they influence them to support the change process. Managers that have direct authority with people that are going through change should support and execute change. They are required to influence members their attitudes towards change. Effective organisational leaders acknowledge that their support is critical to the success of organisational. The following is how organisations might influence the proposed change:

Sponsor-Leaders are required to act as advocates of change at the level of organisation. They are required to communicate change to the employee and explain to the importance of change and the impact it will have on them and on the organisational in general. Leaders as sponsors are required to ensure that the change the attitudes and beliefs of employees and get the support that they require from the employees. A leader as a sponsor is an individual that will not let change initiative to die from lack of attention. He is willing to use the political capital to ensure that change happen and as a sponsor of change leaders are champions. Leaders at Guy’s and St Thomas Hospital are sponsors of change; they initiate change by analysing the operations within the organisation and identify areas that require change. They also provide support to the people that work at the hospital and these ensure that change becomes a success.

Role model- To ensure that change becomes a success in the workplace; leaders are required to ensure that they act as agents of change.  They are required to be role models and this is by ensuring that they go first, they are required to demonstrate the behaviours and attitudes that are expected to support change and to be followed by everyone in the organisation. Employees watch the way leaders behave during change and they watch the consistency that exists between the words and actions of leaders to see of the leader’s belief in the change process. The leaders of Guy’s and St Thomas Hospital support change by acting as role models of change. They act and show certain behaviours that indicate that they support the change that is going down. They ensure that they are aware of the change and this help influences the attitudes of employees and other leaders towards change.

Making decision- leaders are required to ensure that the decisions that they make are relevant and effective. They are required to influence employees in making critical decisions. This will ensure that the input of employees is taken into consideration. Leaders usually control resources for example people, budget and others equipment’s. They have the authority to make decisions that will support or affect the change intatitve. Leaders at Guy’s and St Thomas Hospital have an ability to say yes or no to change that affect their span of control. Leaders are required to leverage their decision making authority and select options that will support the change initiative. Leaders are decisive and they should set priorities that will ensure they support change.

Communicate- Leaders are the voice and face of change and they are required to communicate often by sharing information that will change the attitude and behavior of people that are affected by change. Effective communication will ensure that leaders share information and keep people updated with the change. It will also improve commitment and encourage people to support change. Guy’s and St Thomas Hospital leaders are effective at communication. They ensure that employees are given all the information that they require using different communication channels. Leaders should be able to interpret change and they should be transparent and consistent with their communication.  This will ensure that employees support the change.

Engage- Leaders of organisation might influence members to support change by engaging them. Leaders for example at Guy’s and St Thomas Hospital provide motivation to change and ensure that all members are involved. They create a sense of urgency and explain the importance of change and show commitment and passion about getting things done according to plan. The provide recognition to those people that participate in the change process well. Leaders also realise that change can sometimes be difficult and understand the need for people to be motivated to ensure that they step out of their conform zone.

Hold accountable- leaders have authority and they should use the authority to ensure that people that are task with managing and overseeing change are held accountable. They uphold agreement and make sure that members do the same. They work to ensure that people are supporting change and try to remove the obstacles that affect the change process. Effective organisational leaders recognise that change cannot take place without fulling their roles.

Practical examples of the narratives and stories that the organisation uses to influence a range of stakeholders, in addition to its members

 

There are several stories that are used by the management of Guy’s and St Thomas Hospital the burning platform story that explains why the ways of operations that were used in the past that were successful are no longer successful now. For example there have been fundamental shift in the workplace where the nature of work has shifted from semi-skilled to knowledge work.  Knowledge work ensures that employees are able to meet the requirements of customers. The needs of a company can be achieved if the knowledge workers contribute their talent and energy towards innovation. As a result, the 20th Century management system the goose that laid America’s golden egg has stopped delivering and this indication that there is a need for change. The other story that is used is the spring board story that is about the past or something that has already passed , there is no need to invent anything because it has happened,  it is believable and because it is positive it spark action. In the year 1985 for example a health worker in a small town in Zambia went to the Canters for Disease Control website to get an answer about the treatment of Malaria.  This is a simply store that has helped Guy’s and St Thomas Hospital workers to envision different kind of future for a company.  The other story that is used is the story of the past that shows how a firm is operating today. This story is needed because much of the knowledge is tacit and exists in unspoken assumptions and attitudes that are like the water where the fish swims. Stories that are used also include the future stories for example comparing traditional management with radical management. This enables employees understand where the organisation is moving towards.

Conclusion

The report has demonstrated the role of leadership in managing change within an organisation. Organisation change is inevitable and leaders should ensure that they manage the change process to ensure that it is successful. There are several leadership approach that are used to manage change for example trait approach, functional approach, leadership styles and behavioural approach. The report has also evaluated several ways that leaders use to ensure that members support change and influences their attitudes towards change.