Sample Literature Review on Obesity

Obesity

Introduction

Obesity is a common medical condition. It is associated with excess body fats to the extent that it causes adverse health effects to an individual. According to Patlak and Nass (2012), obesity is a common problem in the western countries such as United States, Canada, and United Kingdom. Medically, people are considered obese when their Body Mass Index exceeds 30 (Eckel, 1997). The primary problem of obesity is that it is associated with both cancer and heart diseases. According to Annenberg and Berger (2013), medical experts and researchers have established that obesity increases the likelihood of various types of heart diseases as well as cancer.

Section I: Obesity and Heart Disease

Eckel, R. (1997). Obesity and Heart Disease: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Nutrition Committee. American Heart Association, 3(24), 3248-3250. DOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.96.9.3248.

This article states the adverse effects of obesity on the American population as well as its relations with certain heart diseases. It starts by giving a precise definition of obesity then proceeds to the heart diseases. In this article, the author noted that most comorbidities relating obesity to heart diseases directly increases with the rise in Body Mass Index (BMI). These comorbidities also relate to the distribution of fat in the body. He noted obesity as the primary cause of congestive heart failure. The article also discusses various treatments of obesity and heart diseases.

Mathew, B., Francis, L., Kayalar, A., & Cone, J. (2008). Obesity: Effects on Cardiovascular Disease and its Diagnosis. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 562-568. DOI: 10.3122/jabfm.2008.06.080080.

This article discusses the effects of obesity on heart diseases as well as its diagnosis. In particular, it notes the high prevalence of heart diseases in obese individuals. The author concludes that this is directly mediated by increased frequency of various risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia among others as part of a metabolic syndrome. Also, the authors discuss in detail several ways through which obesity affects the cardiovascular system.

Fletcher, G. F., Grundy, S. M., & Hayman, L. L. (1999). Obesity: Impact on cardiovascular disease. Armonk, NY: Futura Publications.

This book recognizes the increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide and its effects on the cardiovascular system. It identifies obesity as the major contributing factor to several types of cardiovascular diseases in the contemporary life. Three main sections of this book are dedicated to evaluating the current research about the roles of obesity in causing heart diseases. The book also explores the epidemiology of obesity, including its genetic as well as non-genetic influences on heart diseases. The book also deals with the discovery of obesity-related genes.

Section II: Obesity and Cancer

Wolina, K., Carsonb, K., & Colditzac, G. (2010). Obesity and Cancer. Journal of the Society of Transnational Oncology, 4(33), 67-89. doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2009-0285.

This peer reviewed journal article identified obesity as one of the leading causes of several types of cancers. The authors argue that weight gain, weight, as well as obesity collectively contribute to approximately 20% cases of cancer globally. The article gives clear evidence on the relations of obesity to several types of cancer. These include thyroid, renal, liver, multiple myelomas, leukemia, lymphoma, esophageal, colon, melanoma, rectum, gallbladder, as well as the prostate in men. However, the article concludes that there is mixed evidence of obesity and cancer outcomes; therefore, further research is needed.

Patlak, M., & Nass, S. J. (2012). The Role of Obesity in Cancer Survival and Recurrence: Workshop Summary. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.

This book discusses the role of obesity in causing cervical cancer. It gives evidence of recent research suggesting that excessive weight can cause cervical cancer. The authors argue that obesity plays prominent roles in not only the incidence but also progression of several types of cancer. The imbalances in energy intake have a deeper influence on the growth of cancers. This book provides a review of the latest clinical evidence on the relationships between obesity and cancer.

Dannenberg, A. J., & Berger, N. A. (2013). Obesity, Inflammation and Cancer. New York, NY: Springer.

This is one of the books discussing the latest developments and discoveries in the field of cancer. The book associates obesity and adipose tissues with several types of cancer growth. It also associates obesity with humoral and cellular inflammatory factors, which might later affect the paracrine, endocrine, and autocrine mechanisms. The authors suggest that these inflammatory mediators caused by obesity contribute to the prevalence of different types of cancers. The book provides information on the significant link between cancer growth and obesity.