Sample Management Essays on Ancient Medicine
Herophilus of Chalcedon
Herophilus was a Greek physician who practiced in the Egyptian city of Alexandria. He became known mostly for his anatomical works on human body. Herophilus and Erasistratus pioneered medical dissection. In addition, Herophilus also developed context on delivery and an important system of pulse analysis and classification (Edelstein & Ludwig, 33).
Erasistratus of Ceos
He is especially known for his studies of the nervous system and the circulatory system, he noted sensory and motor nerves were different. He however thought that nerves were hollow tube containing certain fluids. Erasistratus correctly outlined the functions of the epiglottis and those of the various valves o the heart. He was also the first major exponent of pneumatism. Which was mainly based on the premises that that life is associated with subtle vapor called pneuma.
The Alexandria journal of medicine provides a venue for publication of research with particular focus of high prevalence in Middle East and Africa. In it various drugs are classified either as natural, manmade, or indigenous.
Nicander of Colophon
He is widely known for his treaties on poison. He did various investigations on antidote to bites from venomous snakes, scorpions and spiders and how to take care of such bites. In his treaties, Thearica, he describes various snakes and effects of their poison.
Philinus of Cos
Philinus was a Greek physician and a reputable founder of empiric school. He was also a student of Herophilus, contemporary of Bacchius and a predecessor to Serapion. Philinus wrote works on part of Hippocartic collection directed against Bacchius, and also works on botany.
Cato the Elder
He was also known as Cato the Censor and widely known for his conservatism and opposition to Hellenization. He was regarded as a Novus homo and the feeling of dissatisfaction in his position aggravated and drove his quest as he had a strong belief that he was inherently superior.
Aulus Cornelius Celsus
Aulus was a great Roman medical writer and author of an encyclopedia involving agriculture, philosophy, law, art rhetoric and medicine. De medicina was largely ignored by contemporary society but it is still considered one of the best and finest medical classics. The most remarkable of his work is advanced state of medical practice (Edelstein & Ludwig, 56). He highly recommended cleanliness in the medical field and insisted that wounds be washed with antiseptics. Aulus described plastic surgery using skin from various body parts. He also described the various signs of inflammation including pain, heat, redness and swelling.
Asclepiades of Bithynia
A great Greek physician who established Greek medicine in Rome. He highly opposed the humoral doctrine of Hippocrates and insisted that disease is brought about by the constricted or relaxed conditions of solid particle, a theory he derived from the Atomic theory of Democritus. He pioneered treatment of mental disorders by use of occupational therapy and exercise.
Themison of Laodicea
Themison was the founder of the Methodic school which prayed an extensive influence on medical science. His medical theories corresponded with the Methodist doctrine and believed that the cause of a disease consisted of an obstruction.
He was a court physician to the roman emperor. He drew a list of upto 271 prescriptions most of his own through the support of friends, tutors and other eminent physicians. He wrote on antidotes against poison and a drug against colic.
A pharmacologist and physician of Greek origin. De Materia Medica was one of his work and the foremost source of modern botanical terminologies. He was also a surgeon in the army of Roman emperor. His manuscripts describes most of the drugs used in medical practice in the modern days.
Soranus of Ephesus
He was a Greek pediatrician, obstetrician and gynecologist and also the chief representative of the Methodist school of medicine. He emphasized on minor rues of practice based on the theory that assigned diseases to be a complicated state of internal pores.
He was a renowned Greek philosopher and historian. He produced an extant detailed account of Greek skepticism. He also elaborated the ten tropes of Aenesidemus and attacked any speculative knowledge.
Athenaeus of Attaleia
He was the founder of the Pneumatist school of physician. He described health and disease through the good and bad temperaments. He devised the dietetic rules in which he encompassed pedagogical and medical reports which were differentiated in accordance with the stages of life. Most of his systems were only important in their speculative and theological formulation rather than their practical effectiveness.
Claudius was a Spartan doctor who was highly associated with the Pneumatists medical sect. He established a medical source on electric medical sect which was based on pneumatism with additional doctrines from medical Empiricism and Methodism. In addition, he wrote influential works on pulsation.
Archigenes of Apamea
He was a native of Apamea in Syria, pupil of Agathinus and the most celebrated of the sect of Eclectici. Apamea enjoyed high respect for his reputable professional skill. However, he was criticized for introducing new obscure terms in science and for attempting to give amedical writing a dialectic form. He published writings on the pulse of which Galen commented on. Many of his works had minute and subtle distinctions which had no real existence and most parts were preconceived hypothesis rather than the actual observations.
Aretaeus of Cappadocia
Aretaeus was of Cappadocia origin. He wrote in the Lonian Greek dialect and his medical practice concurred with the teachings of Hippocrates. He wrote manuscripts on acute and chronic disease. In addition, his works are memorable for clear description of various medical conditions like diabetes, coeliac disease and asthma. He insisted on polypharmacy and unreasonable demands for treatment of diabetes.
Rufus of Ephesus
He was a Greek physician and an author who wrote works on pathology, dietetics, patient care and pathology. His theoretical works stressed on importance of anatomy and he recommended pragmatic approach of care rather than diagnostic and treatment. At some extent he was a follower of Hippocrates although he seemed to depart or differ with the author at sometimes. His writings also involved topics overlooked by other authors like treatment of slaves and the elderly. His teachings put emphasis on the importance of anatomy and pragmatic approaches to disease diagnosis and treatment of the same.
Galen of Pergamum
Galen was a physician and a surgeon at the gladiators in Pergamum. Being a master of philosophy, he highly considered the study of philosophy to be an essential tool in physicians training as it enables an individual to discern truth from illusions. He used apes to conduct dissections and vivisections to experience how the human body was structured. By cutting or stimulating various nerves in the spinal cord he was able to learn of which organs and body parts they controlled.
Marcus is greatly known for his meditations stoic philosophy and is currently considered one of the greatest work in philosophy. He was an apprenticeship under Antoninus and a pupil to Fronto who was a dreary pedant and had blood that ran rhetoric (Trevor & Thompson, 102).
That the Best Doctor is also a Philosopher
Galen advocated fro study of arts and letter as a necessary component of scientific studies. Galen was discounted with the medical culture of his day, he was quick to note that the best doctor is also a philosopher, he pointed at doctors pay slip to Hippocrates but were too lazy to heighten their expertise and lacked training in logical theories (Frede & Michael, 18)
The Art of Medicine
The science and art of medicine has greatly contributed to human existence in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases, however, the art of medicine still remains the medium through which illness and body sufferings are treated and it also becomes paramount when biomedicine reduces it effectiveness and little is left to offer (Carroll, Melissa & Katherine Lawson, 27).
Prognosis in medicine is used to depict the likelihood of a patient surviving a diseases attack, prognostic estimates are often very accurate. However, it should primarily be based on the study and evidence of design displayed by the patient rather than mere observations (Carroll, Melissa & Katherine Lawson, 73).
On Anatomical Procedures
Galen believed that studying of various body parts and how they were interconnected was important in the science of anatomy. Thessalus is highly attributed with his innovation of metasynkrisis which is the modification of the pores of the body, he insisted that the process of treatment required proper supervision and that patients should be starved for the first diatritos, until the third day, to confirm the truth of diagnosis (Köckerling, Köckerling, & C Lomas, 86).
Augustine of Hippo
He was an early North African theologian as well as a philosopher whose writing highly influenced development of Christianity and philosophy in the west. He writings in the Patristic Era made him one of the most important church fathers in western Christianity. In addition, he tried to reconcile his beliefs on free will, more so, he believed that humans are morally answerable to their actions and that life is predestined.
Apuleius of Madaurus
He is remembered for his brilliant novel, Metamorphoses. He was a Latin prose writer, rhetorical writer as well as a Platonist philosopher. He studied Platonisms in anthems and was an initiate of several mysterious cults.
He was a Greek author and orator who was considered to be a prime example of second sophistic which was a group that was celebrated and had highly influential orators. He seek divine interventions from the god Asclepius as a form of treatment to his decade long illnesses. Aristides achieved notable success in his works as an orator and this made Philostratus declare him as one of the best deeply versed in that art.
Lucian of Samosata
He was a writer known for his satire in his works. He was born and located in Samosata and he made a living as an itinerant lecturer. A true story is one of best known part of his work which is considered to be one of the greatest first science fictional stories.
A prominent philosopher and physician in the Islamic world. He integrated the disparate strands of philosophical and scientific thinking into his works (Trevor & Thompson, 46). His most important work of philosophy and science is integrated in kitab al-shifa. In his work, he attempted to broadly unify classification of knowledge as science was equated to wisdom. He viewed philosophy as an instrumental tool, art and science to be viewed with the second order concept.
Trevor, Thompson. “Ancient Medicine.” (2015). Print. http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document. Accessed 14th Dec 2017
Köckerling, F, D Köckerling, and C Lomas. “Cornelius Celsus—ancient Encyclopedist, Surgeon–scientist, or Master of Surgery?” Langenbeck’s Archives of Surgery. (2013). Print. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3627856/ Accessed 14th Dec 2017
Edelstein, Ludwig. “The Distinctive Hellenism of Greek Medicine.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 40 (1966). Print. http://www.greekmedicine.net/whos_who/Galen.html Accessed 14th Dec 2017
Carroll, Melissa A, and Katherine Lawson. “The Intermingled History of Occupational Therapy and Anatomical Education: a Retrospective Exploration.” Anatomical Sciences Education. 7.6 (2014): 494-500. Print. http://archive.constantcontact.com/fs160/1101852694630/archive. Accessed 14th Dec 2017
Frede, Michael. “Philosophy and Medicine in Antiquity.” Human Nature and Natural Knowledge : Essays Presented to Marjorie Grene on the Occasion of Her Seventy-Fifth Birthday. (1986). Print. https://archive.org/stream/EssaysInAncientPhilosophy/81539700-frede-m-essays-in-ancient-philosophy11_djvu.txt. Accessed 14th Dec 2017