Sample Management Paper on Data Collection Techniques

There are two types of data namely quantitative and qualitative data. The latter represents empirical data that cannot be presented in the form of numbers. Quantitative data, on the other hand, is presented in numerical form that can be ranked (McLeod, 1970). There are various types of data collection techniques namely:

1.) Observation – this involves watching or conducting records of various characteristics of the subject at hand .e.g. filming.

Advantages: observation made is first hand information and factual.

Disadvantages: this method interferes with the confidentiality of the subject.

Common Mistakes: the observer is likely to be bias and choose whatever may please him/her.

2.) Census Taking – obtaining of data from single individuals within a group/ population.

Advantages: contains facts and first hand information

Disadvantages: various individuals tend to have different opinions and thus different information.

Common Mistakes: the observer tends to limit him/herself to a group or population that may entice them.

3.) Design of samples – this is a procedure whereby a specimen/sample of a group is taken from the wider population.

Advantages: it is simple and only requires a small number of people or even objects from a chosen population (Neuman, 2016).

Disadvantages: it is time consuming and the data obtained may be favoring and not factual.

Common Mistakes: only the best parties are chosen to be samples thus the others are neglected.

4.) Design of Experiments – this experiment is usually conducted by researchers and the conclusions made are used as the data found.

Advantages: various experiments are made thus uniformity of conclusions.

Disadvantage: various conclusions may be made depending on the different observations made.

Common Mistakes: errors conducted during the experiment may be neglected thus leading to unreliable data.

5.) Simulation – this is a technological way of replicating a process by computing and the use of graphical ways.

Advantages: usually useful in cases whereby the process of data collection is dangerous.

Disadvantages: most of the time, the data presented is usually not configurative and does not consider the likelihood of change in decisions.

Common Mistakes: may involve too much graphical exaggeration in data presentation.

6.) Anecdotal Sampling – this method is made of short stories and quotations done by the observer.

Advantages: they are usually short and precise; straight to the point.

Disadvantages: many times the observer makes misquotations.

Common Mistakes:  the major points may end up being left out.


McLeod, S. (1970, January 01). Qualitative vs Quantitative. SimplyPsychology. Retrieved March 01, 2018, from

Neuman, W. L. (2016). Understanding research. Pearson.