Sample Management Paper on Quality Management Training Manual

Introduction

Quality management has existed since as early as the 1920s when scientific management was introduced. In this decade, the Hawthorne experiments were conducted to show how employee participation improves productivity. During the 1930s, Shewhart Walter introduced statistical analyses in quality control. The 1950s were highly significant as they involved Edward Deming’s and Joseph Juran’s findings. The former introduced quality control and statistical analysis in quality improvement. Concepts of total quality control and zero defects were adopted too. Total quality management started in Japan and was adopted elsewhere. Currently, quality standards like the Malcolm Bridge, ISO 9000 and Deming Prize are used. Quality management is needed in order to improve performance both holistically and sustainably.

Strategic quality management is increasingly adopting elements from the quality revolution in Japan. This means that the US, UK and other western countries are embracing these principles. Another approach is focus on organizational context prior to and during the adoption of a quality management tool; culture and the problem being addressed as well as the industry matter.

This training manual targets Head, which is a sports equipment and sportswear organization. The firm was started in Baltimore, US but grew to be an international firm. It makes and sales ski equipment, tennis rackets, tennis shoes, skates, and diving material. Other manufacturers of clothing equipment, bicycle makers and watch makers also use the firm’s brand.

Deming and Six Sigma as well as other programs have been replaced overtime owing to insignificant contributions to the bottom-line but some helped in improving product quality. Quality circles failed in the US even after working in Japan. Total quality management worked due to the holistic approach but focused on departments rather than entire businesses. Six Sigma emphasized statistical tools even when basic improvement was sufficient. However customer focus, root cause analysis, and other tenets make it appealing.

The Role of Leadership

Senior management plays the role of vision and objective setting during the quality improvement program. For instance, Lockheed Martin Missiles won a quality excellence award in 2012 because its senior managers set the direction for their quality management efforts. Likewise, they are the key decision makers, who should strive to use facts to make those decisions. Finally, they should promote continuous commitment and teamwork in the group. Sutter Davis Hospital embodied these principles by involving the laboratory, radiology, casualty, and other departments in its quality improvement processes (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2016).

The key role for senior managers in such large scale quality improvement programs is decision making. First, they make the decision to adopt a quality improvement program, and then they decide what the objectives will be. This role continues when they determine the internal and external needs of the organization that ought to be made. Likewise, they decide which areas require empowerment of employees so that they can solve quality problems closest to them. The cheerleader is also crucial since senior managers need to maintain continuous commitment to their quality programs. Resource providers are also paramount since they ensure that the quality program has sufficient backing. They also act as role models by implementing quality principles in their own work (Tagues, 2004).

These roles are crucial because they determine the extent to which quality initiatives blend with organization culture. The roles also ascertain that the intervention has the right resources and support required. Failure to adopt these roles may cause firms to invest much in a quality program but they may not yield results (Nedeliakova & Panak, 2015).

Senior and middle managers can get performance metrics based on the level of order management. They may also use the effectiveness of workflow equipment in the supply chains. It is also possible to use the corrective actions requests. This records the number of corrective actions that occur in the logistics department.

General Quality Strategies and Tools

  Definitions Risks Value
Establishing customer expectations This refers to the process of outlining what customers require and need with regard to quality. It involves all components of the business like delivery, production, pricing, and product design Customers are not the only stakeholders in a business and too much focus on them could compromise suppliers; community, employees’, or regulators’ needs.

(Novack & Thomas, 2004).

It leads to repeat customers since their needs are always being met. Many refer friends and cause the business to grow.
Designing quality This refers to the fit between customers’ needs and product design specifications. Anderson & Sedatole, 2003). There could be resistance to change internally. Furthermore, alterations in customer demand may lead to increases in costs, which may not be met because of investment constraints. Quality failures are less likely to occur with designing quality and this will eliminate losses brought by those defects.
Defining metrics This refers to the process of defining the data that will be used to measure quality indicators in the supply chain, financially or even in customer service. Most times, quality metrics are implemented on the basis of industry standards or past records. The problem with this approach is that it confines organizations to the past rather than their future capabilities. (Fernandes, 2014). It helps companies know whether their quality efforts are working or not and illuminates the areas that require improvement. It also assists in asking questions that matter.
Mistake proofing This refers to the use of a method or device that either makes it impossible for a mistake to occur or points it out whenever it happens. It is resource-intensive and may be too costly for organizations with few human errors. Some mistakes are inevitable. This helps in processes that are susceptible to human error especially those that require attention to detail and experience. It is also helpful in instances where minor errors can get worse with time or lead to expensive and even dangerous consequences.
Kaizen This is a Japanese philosophy that refers to continuous improvement. It requires a holistic application of all Kaizen steps or else the results will be disappointing. It empowers employees who are best-placed to make changes. It can be applied anywhere and hence boost all aspects of business operations.
Six Sigma A quality management approach in which businesses improve their services or products through defect elimination and streamlining processes. It does not focus on innovation and new products or services.

It works for large companies but not small or medium-sized ones.

 

It is systematic and often leads to positive quality outcomes. It has accreditation and is hence credible (Amer et. al., 2008)

 

Quality Tactics & the Logistics and Supply Chain Function

Lean six sigma is the improvement model for internal application. It is an approach that combines elements of lean thinking and six sigma to the firm’s strategic goals. It highly depends on support by senior leaders who prepare a strategy for the staff and define long term objectives. Additionally, employees are crucial in this model because their engagement can either lead to success or failure of the intervention. This tool is based on the reduction of waste and error by quick changes and ominous learning (Majerčák and Majerčáková, 2014).

There are a number of characteristics that are synonymous with Lean Six and these include having long term strategies that fall anywhere between 1 and 3 years. Improving performance is the basic system and reducing costs through an increment of quality as supported by cost efficiency statistics. It also relies on use of other improvement tools like DMAIC. Not only will this approach improve the supply chain and logistics process, it will increase productivity, efficiency, and minimize cost (Pyzdek & Keller, 2013).

For external use, the tool of choice is Total quality management from the ISO9001. This is driven by eight principles, including leadership, factual decision making, customer focus and beneficial supplier relationships. In the entire supply chain, each player should thoroughly understand their customer’s (buyer’s) needs and seek to satisfy them. A quality function deployment tool is helpful (Leonard and McAdam, 2002).

Factual decision-making can be implemented through the use of data. This data should be collected and then used for optimal decision-making. Beneficial supplier relationships in this tool work by collaborating with suppliers so as to ensure they deliver quality raw materials. Quality teams may be sent out by the firm in order to consult with vendors and determine ways that they can improve each other’s work processes to achieve quality goals. A lot of information sharing is needed and so is conformity to specific quality systems.

Rollout

This new quality improvement process involves three major components including a communication plan, a training sequence, and stakeholder definition. The communication plan is critical since it determines how effectively the quality processes are understood and implemented. It will have a point of contact lost with all the suppliers, vendors, transporters, and other stakeholders. It will also have their contact information and responsibilities. Likewise, there should be a pre-rollout meeting, in which the stakeholders meet and define the quality control procedures and policies. Expectations on results of the quality program should also be outlined (Deros et. al., 2008).

The quality control program requires regular and formal control meetings that should occur on a weekly meeting. The supply chain and logistics stakeholders will communicate some of their concerns and statistics solutions; they will also review action lists. When there is a new task, the quality manager should have preparatory meetings. Finally, there ought to be records of inspection tests, audits, and performance reports of the product.

In preparing the participants for the quality program, they will first undergo ISO 9001 and Lean Six training. These should occur sequentially so that they do not confuse one system with another. They should also learn about other crucial components of training quality like the use of technology, communication, and purchasing. These latter components will follow one another successively. Employees include those that work in the personnel as well as transportation staff (Head, 2015).

The stakeholders in this quality management program include employees who will undergo training, implement, and continue improving the logistics and supply chain department. They also include suppliers who provide raw materials; they are part of the vendor base. Suppliers ensure that costs are low, production units are timely, and that no extra machining is needed for additional refining due to poor quality input. Customers are crucial in this intervention since their needs drive quality improvement. Quality control trainers and auditors are important as they will enable checking and control. Third party companies that provide supply chain services are also involved.

 

References

Amer, Y., Luong, L., Lee, S. H., & Ashraf, M. A. (2008). Optimizing Order Fulfillment Using Design for Six Sigma and Fuzzy Logic. International Journal of Management Science and Engineering Management, 3(2), 83-99.

Anderson, S. W. & K. Sedatole (2003). Designing Quality into Products: The Use of Accounting Data in New Product Development. Accounting Horizons, 3, 213-233.

Deros, B., Nizam, M., Ghani, J., Wahab, D. & Khamis, N. (2008). Role of Senior Management in TQM Implementation in Malaysian Small and Medium Enterprises. The Institution of Engineers, 72(3), 15-21.

Fernandes, A. (2014). Quality Management and Supply Chain Management Integration. Retrieved from http://ieomsociety.org/ieom2014/pdfs/168.pdf

Head (2015, March). Annual Report 2014. Retrieved from   http://www.head.com/fileadmin/user_upload/Corporate/Head_-_Annual_Report_2014_bw.pdf

Leonard, D. & McAdam R. (2002). The Strategic Impact and Implementation of TQM. The TQM Magazine, 14(1), 51-60.

Majerčák, P. & Majerčáková, E. (2014). The Aim of Distribution Logistics in the Supply Chain, in SCIECONF 2014, Proceedings in Scientific Conference, University of Žilina, pp. 520–523.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (2016, Aug. 25). Baldridge FAQs. Retrieved from https://www.nist.gov/baldrige/baldrige-faqs-baldrige-award-recipients

Nedeliakova, E. & Panak, M. (2015). New Trends in Process-Oriented Quality Management. Procedia Economics and Finance, 34(4), 172-179.

Novack, R. A., & Thomas, D. J. (2004). The Challenges of Implementing the Perfect Order Concept. Transportation Journal, 8, 5-16.

Pyzdek, T. & Keller, P. (2013). The Handbook for Quality Management. A Complete Guide to Operational Excellence. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., USA.

Tagues, N. (2004). The Quality Toolbox, Second Edition. NY: ASQ Quality Press.