Sample Medical Sciences Paper on Nanobacteria


Nanobacteria (NB) are cytotoxic, antiseptic-filterable, tiny, and unusual bacteria perceived in bovine as well as human blood (Urbano & Urbano, 2007). They are tiny bodies, which generate carbonate apatite in their cell walls. The tinier ones can navigate membranes smaller holes, and can be viewed by scanning electron microscopy or transmission electron microscopy whereby they resemble spheres or sticks (Urbano & Urbano, 2007). Nanobacteria have relatively a thick covering of apatite developed from soluble calcium as well as phosphorus compounds in their surroundings. Conventional microbiological techniques do not detect nanobacteria. NB are also immunogenic, and the tools for discovering their antigen or antibodies are designed in Finland (Urbano & Urbano, 2007). The organisms are shielded by a transparent carbonate apatite case and are the main causes of medical extraskeletal calcification, which include kidney stones.

Nanobacteria can be isolated by gathering urinary tract stones from patients where they are demineralized in hydrochloric acid (HCl) and neutralized and centrifuged, and the pellets are utilized for immune-fluorescence Staining (IIFS) as well as Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM). Another method of isolation is electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis where nanobacteria are isolated by centrifugation. Nano-sized materials are also utilized in removing the bacteria from water through nanoparticles halted against carbon nanotube as well as cyclodextrin polymers (Kumon et al., 2011).

Nanobacterium is a sub-microscopic blood particle that forms a rock-hard phosphate shell, which chemically resembles substances involved in the hardening of the arteries, prostate illness, kidney disease, periodontal disease as well as breast cancer. NB play a role in the initial development of illnesses by functioning as a medium of transferring bacterial as well other various contaminants to tissues. Nanobacteria discharge a tacky, calcium-rich covering that enables them to stick to the cells in the artery walls and one another. The covering then hardens into a shell, guarding the bacteria against the immune system and all antibiotics, radiation, as well as chemotherapy.  Besides, an inflammatory cataract is introduced in the artery or body parts, which develops a solid calcific plaque whose coatings persistently develop for several years, resulting in a blood vessel or organ illness (Rona, 2005).

NB highly contribute to the development of extraskeletal calcifying illnesses, such as stones formation, urolithiasis and polycystic kidney disease, atherosclerosis, periodontal disease, rheumatoid arthritis, prostatitis, heart disease, calcific atherosclerotic infection, and coronary artery. Electron microscopic observations indicate that apatite units generated in serum-free NB cultures resemble human apatitic kidney stones. They all develop as coatings of mineral and matrix. The structure of the hard mineral development resembles the one of most extraskeletal tissue calcification as well as stones. Apatite contributes to the development of all kidney stones. Moreover, NB is believed to be active nidi, which fix to, attack, and harm the urinary epithelium of gathering ducts as well as papilla, creating a calcium phosphate center (Ciftcioglu, McKay, Mathew & Kajander, 2006).

Endotoxin, NB as well as Fungal antigens and antibodies have been found in human kidney cyst fluids. Besides, an increased occurrence of kidney calcification is perceived in Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) compared to the normal individuals. The present cellular toxicities, tissue supply, as well as the pharmacology of NB are possibly associated with the recognized pathology and pharmacology of PKD (Ciftcioglu et al., 2006).

The incidents of prostatic calculi in men is linked to inflammation and signs of chronic pelvic pain condition. The center of prostatic calculi is normally calcium apatite, which serves as a symbol of NB action. NB play a role in chronic prostatitis. The clinical studies aimed at such agents have been successful in the treatment of individuals with unmanageable group III prostatitis (Ciftcioglu et al., 2006).

Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) is treated with antimicrobial drugs, which prevent in vitro growth of nanobacteria present in individuals’ kidney stones as well as kidney cyst solutions. NB separated with Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) are prevented by tetracycline HCI, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as well as ampicillin at levels attainable in serum and urine (Insight Knowledge, U. K., 2011). In addition, tetracycline prevents duplication of isolates of nanobacteria from patients’ kidney stones as well as kidney cyst liquids in individuals with PKD (Insight Knowledge, U. K., 2011).

The utilization of catheters is frequent in urinary tract. The process is linked to major illnesses, mainly from related diseases. Catheters for averting bacterial colonization as well as the development of biofilms have been formed through several coverings, which include ciprofloxacin, hydrogel, as well as silver. The utilization of such forms of catheters lessens infections and coatings innate to their location in the urinary tract (Insight Knowledge, U. K., 2011). Precise treatment for urease-generating bacteria, for example, urease-blockages as well as antibiotics, facilitates the cure for the subdivision of urinary stones.

Nanobacteria are responsive in vitro to tetracycline whose efficiency is enhanced by the EDTA dissolving nanobacteria apatitic defensive coat. Therefore, incorporation of these medications provides effective treatment for the calcific atherosclerotic infection. The oral powder that has EDTA and amino acids, vitamins, as well as proteins, boost EDTA-tetracycline treatment and generate significant impacts on recognized for the heart ailment risk factors. Treatment consisting tetracycline, a nutraceutical that supposedly enables the antibiotic to enter the stone as well as a suppository that has EDTA for dissolving the stone, eradicates calcification created by nanobacteria in the causes and signs of Category 111 Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (Insight Knowledge, U. K., 2011).

The usual treatment for chronic bacterial prostatitis entails a one to three months plan of prostate-reaching antibiotics. It is essential to also use live probiotics in the course and several months following antibiotics treatment, particularly the broad-spectrum, such as fluoroquinolones. The antibiotics abolish the regular foliage in large intestines, and their utilization can lead to a severe case of candidiasis that is hard to eliminate (Insight Knowledge, U. K., 2011). NanobacTX therapy treats coronary artery for three months. Moreover, Azithromycin is effective in averting coronary disease.

The treatment of typical bacterial infections differs from that of nanobacterial infections, as tetracycline hydrochloride is the only antibiotic that kills nanobacteria because of its chemical structure. Various antibiotic drugs can treat infections by typical bacteria. Moreover, their treatment process is simple, whereas nanobacteria are difficult to eliminate and treat due to their hardened shells, outer coatings developed from thick resilient materials that shield the nanobacteria from the eradication medications as well as the immune system. Penicillin cannot destroy NB, including cephalosporins, macrolides, and several different antibiotics with heat below 196 F as well as gamma radiation below 151 Mrad (Insight Knowledge, U. K., 2011).

In nanobacterial infections, antibiotic drugs treatment procedure begins with the suspension of calcified shells through elements, such as liquid zeolites and fulvic acid that reach the molecular bonds and alter the structure of the shell. The process is followed by periods of chelating instruments, such as an Ethylene-Diamine-Tetra-Acetic acid (EDTA) as well as Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) to further damage the problematic shell (Insight Knowledge, U. K., 2011).

The acknowledgment of nanobacterial infections compels us to revisit our comprehension of chronic illnesses as well as their symptoms. Existing literature proposes that most of the chronic illnesses have no cure and therefore patients are only guided to manage them. However, from the study of nanobacterial infections, it is clear that various chronic infectious illnesses are caused by nanobacteria hence can be treated by administering the right medication. For example, the coronary artery is treated by NanobacTX therapy whereas prostatitis is treated by prostate-penetrating antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones. Only persistent investigations can disclose the nature of NB and their effect on health and illnesses. Researchers need to acknowledge the medical significance of comprehending the revealed impacts of nanobacteria on pathologic calcification in human bodies and investigate countermeasures to eradicate the side effects.







Ciftcioglu, N., McKay, D. S., Mathew, G., & Kajander, O. E. (2006). Nanobacteria: fact or fiction? Characteristics, detection, and medical importance of novel self-replicating, calcifying nanoparticles. Journal of Investigative Medicine54(7), 385-394.

Insight Knowledge, U. K. (2011). Research strategies for treatment of nanobacteria. Insight1(1), 1-8.

Kumon, H., Matsumoto, A., Uehara, S., Abarzua, F., Araki, M., Tsutsui, K., & Tomochika, K. I. (2011). Detection and isolation of nanobacteria‐like particles from urinary stones: Long‐withheld data. International Journal of Urology18(6), 458-465.

Rona, Z. P. (2005). The Nanobacteria Revolution. Retrieved from:

Urbano, P., & Urbano, F. (2007). Nanobacteria: facts or fancies? PLoS pathogens3(5), e55.