Telomeres are controlled by several factors including tumor suppressor genes. As such, cells are programmed to die at a certain moment in time whereby if they do not die they become hyperplastic. Although, some mutations occur in life which may shorten cell death. These causes include radiation exposure, environmental factors and diet. The telomere theory seeks to explain aging of cells; therefore, failure of cells to exponentially increase is thought to be as a result of the shortening of these telomeres. The telomere aging theory can be categorized under non-stochastic theories.
This telomere theory is similar to the programmed theory. Whereby, the DNA is pre-coded at birth, therefore, the number of cells a person has are already pre-programmed on a constant environment but can undergo mutation later in life. At birth people have several bases, but as a person ages the cells divide over and over leading to shortening of telomeres which result in aging. Therefore, a person begins to experience signs of aging such as senile dementia and losing muscle bulk. Additionally, telomerase enzyme stimulates addition of telomeric portions to the end of the chromosomes, thus, maintaining the renewal capacity of the cells (Mauk, p 242). The program theory is basically timed therefore it is similar to the biological clock theory.
Autoimmunity is whereby auto antibodies attack body tissues. As such, the autoimmune theory affirms that with age the immune system becomes inefficient and experiences various challenges factored by autoimmunity (Diggs, 2008). Although, autoimmunity mostly affects young people. The neuroendocrine theory asserts that aging is as a result failure of endocrine organs. Hence there is reduction of hormones produced from the various endocrine organs (Toescu, 2013). Thus, the body cannot meet its own metabolic demands which may causes death.
Any living cell is bound to age and die at some point such is the cycle of life. But genetic material is mostly passed from one offspring to another for continuation of these genetic materials if a person has off springs. The telomere aging theory lies under the non- stochastic theories this is because they are programed to drop off at predetermined intervals and when they eventually die or when your biological clock ticks then you cannot avoid such things as aging and death.
Mauk, K. (2018). Gerontological Nursing: Competencies for Care. 4th ed. Jones and Bartlett.
Toescu Emil.(2013). Neuroendocrine Theory of Aging. Springer Link. (2013). Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-1-4419-1005_477
Digs Jessica. (2008). Autoimmune theory of aging. Springer Link. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-0-387-33754-8_46