Communicable diseases are illnesses that are transmitted from one person or animal to another directly through contact with body discharges or indirectly through objects or vectors such as insects. These infectious ailments are caused by viruses, fungi, parasites, bacteria, and chlamydia. Most of them are usually contagious as they are easily spread from one individual to another, and treating them requires identification of the causative organism to preventing their spread and contaminating the environment (Bates et al., 2015). Some of the common examples include tuberculosis, chickenpox, hepatitis B Ebola, measles polio, and HIV. The research will dwell on tuberculosis, its causes, spread and treatment, effects on health and global implications of the disease.
Tuberculosis (TB) disease is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, what mainly affects the lungs and the respiratory tract. The condition occurs in two forms including latent and active TB. Latent TB are germs in the body but suppressed by the immune system and have no symptoms but are still present in the body. On the other hand, active TB has the bacteria active in the body, and they multiply, making the body immune system weak. An individual with TB shows several symptoms such as chest pains, a constant cough that lasts more than three weeks; the coughs may start as dry cough and prose to wet cough with phlegm and blood stains (Getahun et al., 2015). Additionally, night sweat with fever and constant body chills, loss of appetite is a collective that leads to loss of weight. TB is commonly transmitted through air, mainly when an infected person coughs or sneezes; the bacteria released into the air. Frequent contact with an active TB person exposes an individual to the bacteria in just several hours.
Effects of TB on the body include weakening the immune system making low resistance to other diseases such as kidney diseases, malaria, and cancers. Additionally, the bacteria can get into the spine, causing pains and stiffness; meningitis of the brain is also possible with cases of mental problems. Tissues surrounding the heart are also affected as the bacteria creates inflammation and fluid collections interfering with the heart blood pumping function leading to fatal situations and even death.
Strains of TB are categorized as drug-resistant and may require additional medical care with the affected person needed to take a series of medications for several months to get rid of the infection and also prevent reinfection cases. Treatment includes taking of antibiotics for close to 6 months, multi-resistant drugs and patients are advised to complete the whole treatment cycle to eradicate the disease. TB signs and symptoms when identified on individuals and diagnosed, doctors and medical facilities should report immediately to the TB Control program in the health department. The department will make follow-ups on how to treat the individual and prevention further infections.
Demographic of Interest
Demographics of people with a high risk of contracting TB include infants, individuals recently exposed, immunocompromised persons, HIV infected persons, and people with unique medical conditions such as sickle cell anemia and hemophilia. Prevalence of TB, usually given in respect to cases reported in a population. The computation of tuberculosis given in units of 100,000 people diagnosed with the condition in a medical facility. Prevalence and death rates assist in monitoring the implications of TB as they indicate the number of affected persons and the number of deaths reported in a given period usually yearly (Lifson et al., 2016).
Additionally, the prevalence rate can be used to monitor the extent to which the control of the disease or duration of treatment of the disease. Direct measures of TB are increasing as intensified surveys are conducted periodically in several countries, thereby bringing reliable data for decision making and planning. Prevalence of the bacteria is high among men than women, but the numbers are increasing among the women of reproductive age. Therefore the impact of tuberculosis is strongly felt by the young generation as the families of reproductive women are affected, and therefore, loss of workforce to the economy.
Determinants of Health
Determinants of health include all those factors that can contribute to an individual’s state of health and categorized as social, biological, physical individual behavior, and health services. Social factors such as living in crowded places due to poverty provide high chances of spread of TB due to poor ventilation in the living environments. Additionally, undernutrition and lack of general information of health increase chances of spread of TB. Biological factors such as age also promote preface and incidence of TB as infants; the aged and immune-deficient persons are at high risk of contracting the disease (Adler et al., 2016). Moreover, individual behavior such as drug addicts and physical activity may increase the chances of contracting the disease, especially where people are overcrowded. Health services such as inaccessible medical care or poor quality of care can lead to individuals not diagnosed in time to receive treatment and prevent its spread. Physical environment factors such as living in areas where there is a high prevalence of TB diseases can lead to people contacting the condition.
The epidemiological triangle consists of the agent Host and environment parts. The agent comprises of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria that causes TB in the lungs and when not adequately treated, can mutate to be resistant to antibiotics. Host relates to the organism that is the carrier of the disease. The host can be either be humans or animals and does not necessarily be sick or display the symptoms as the agent only needs a part of their body where it can live. Additionally, the environment in the triangle relates to the factors that can cause the outbreak of the disease .however the environment can also affect the ability of the agent to grow or spread (Rodgers et al., 2018).
Figure 1: Epidemiological Triangle
Source: University of Leicester
Special considerations should be made on increasing the effectiveness of education on the effects of this condition on individuals, society, and the nation. Moreover, medical centers and reporting centers for the outbreak of the disease should be instituted to ensure a fast and reliable response to the incidents. Health centers should also provide adequate measures on mobilizing resources to curb not only TB but also the related complications that arise from the disease (University of Leicester, 2017). Moreover, education institutions should also be considered to provide research on the condition and also help towards creating awareness of the disease. The population can also decide to request for specialties and experts for their community to be among them to allow for emergency response and even response team to the vulnerable population.
Community Health Nurse
Community health nurse is medical caregivers duly registered and trained to be the caregivers on public health in a given population such as jails, schools, villages, or in businesses. They are very close to the given community, thereby forming a bond between healthcare and the community. They perform various primary, secondary, and tertiary duties to the present population. Primary functions of these nurses include bridging the gap between the health caregivers with the community, treating minor injuries and minor illness that they can diagnose and treat. They also take part in managing care and care for the vulnerable populations.
The secondary functions of public health nurses include providing follow-ups on the patients and even collect data to inform policymakers on the type of disease prevention, health activity, and appropriate healthcare to give to a population. They also encourage community awareness of social isolation towards some patients. Additionally, nurses are also involved in determining the eligibility of individuals to be enrolled in health programs or insurance covers. The nurses also perform tertiary services such as counseling and screenings on patients to facilitate referrals and particular Medicare.
Moreover, the nurses are tasked with providing cultural competency aspects to the healthcare providers who are serving the vulnerable populations. Demographic data of a community refers to the age, sex, race, or health needs of a people. Demographics data on society is essential as it is mainly used for planning and making decisions on the service delivery of the people. Data collected to assist the researchers in knowing the extent on which health care is utilized by a particular community to determine if additional funding or grant can be provided to ensure proper healthcare delivery.
Furthermore, the needs assessment is done to ascertain the appropriate care to contribute to the population as the aged, and the growing community requires different needs. Population data also enables the society to know the extent of the quality of care given to them and how reliable the service is. Demographic is key determiners towards product development, especially, where innovative healthcare products introduced to the population. The statistics collected greatly influence the success of the product.
CDC and Its Contribution
Center for Disease Control health agency is involved in prevention and reducing the impact of TB on society. Measures such as providing various centers where the disease where is tested and treated other than health centers have encouraged control to the spread of the disease. Educating the public on the multiple forms of the disease has enabled the society to be cautious of this life-threatening disease. The agency has instituted testing of people vulnerable to the disease such as those with HIV, and those with weak immune systems. Combined efforts with the government have enabled to ensure an adequate supply of antibiotics and vaccines for the treatment of the disease (Lonnroth et al., 2015 ).By expanding the scope of TB treatment from local societies to international borders, the agency has reduced chances of the disease from spreading, thereby reducing the transmission cycle.
Additionally, the agency has brought new and improved methods towards the diagnosis and treatment of TB among HIV persons and children. Researching the disease has enabled the agency to get new ways on how to deal with the different strains of the virus and also introduce less toxic means in curing the affected persons. By strengthening and promoting lab surveillance systems, the agency has allowed for accurate, reliable, and fast diagnosis of cases of TB.
Global impact of TB
The global implication of tuberculosis has been felt far and wide by individuals, societies, and several nations. Large populations of people across the world diagnosed with the disease have a high mortality rate among untreated and immune-deficient people. The disease continues to be transmitted as some areas have inadequate resources to treat or prevent the spread of TB. New strains of TB have been discovered due to mutation of the disease and resistance to the antibiotics, especially where the patients do not complete their dosage, wrong prescriptions are cases of mismanaged drugs. Resistant strains of the viruses have led to additional expenses and costs towards efforts to treat TB as further research costs more to carry out. Loss of experts and human resources has drained countries of bright minds; hence, significant damage to the economy. Additionally, society subjected to receiving different medical care, which leads to resistance and discouragement in dealing with the disease (Kolifarhood et al., 2015).
Global impact in countries is addressed through intensive medical research on ways to treat the disease. Additionally, states have engaged in various health agencies to assist in disease control management and prevention. Several joint research programs between countries have been established, and the recommendations been implemented to ensure complete treatment of the disease. Several community projects have been developed to educate people on the disease. Government departments have also been included to provide healthcare services to people, such as those who cannot access medical care. Communities have been encouraged to seek health care and immediately report on cases of the disease outbreak.
TB is an endemic disease, especially among developing countries and in developed countries such as China where the population is high and poor health standards. The virus thrives well in areas with poor hygiene such as slums of Africa and other continents. TB transmission is highly experienced in regions of poor medical standards are experienced as such areas have inadequate disease control management measures.
Tuberculosis, as one of the contagious disease, is caused by bacteria and affects the lungs. The condition is primarily transmitted through the air and from one infected person to another. Use of antibiotics and proper health standards are ways to treat the disease and also prevent the spreading of the disease. However, new strains of the virus have erupted as a result of resistance to antibiotics and from individuals who fail to complete their doses, wrong dosage, or improper prescriptions. The prevalence of the disease shared among the underdeveloped and developing countries across the world. Determinants of health include biological, physical, and social factors are various factors which contribute to the spread of the disease. The epidemiological triangle of agents host and the environment is often used to show the epidemiological explanation of the cause of TB, how it is transmitted, and factors that cause the spread of the disease. The impact of the disease is felt among nations, and various measures such as engaging community nurses have been put in place to curb the epidemic. Several agencies have also been instrumental in measures to prevent transmission of the disease-causing other effects.
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