Excessive weight gain in individuals is attributable to a complex network of biological and environmental factors. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes changes in the food intake pattern and physical inactivity as the most relevant factors associated with the fast progression of obesity and overweight amongst individuals. WHO defines overweight and obesity as conditions of abnormal or excessive fat accumulation in the adipose tissue to the extent that an individual’s health may be adversely impacted. The WHO operationally identifies those conditions as a body mass index (BMI). The organization has come up with medical interventions related to the adult BMI assessment. WHO outlines that treatment interventions related to obesity and overweight amongst adults can be done using lifestyle (diet and exercise), medical (pharmacological), and surgical interventions.
The WHO asserts that dietary interventions towards reducing the risk factors of overweight and obesity involve an individual taking very low diets or macronutrient foods. Dietary interventions aim at reducing the energy level and relative macronutrient intake, contributing to small weight losses in the short term (Williamson, 2017). However, with dietary interventions, an individual can typically regain weight in the longer term (Williamson, 2017). Combined with dietary interventions, exercise interventions result in marginal improvements in weight loss. Exercise interventions often target increasing energy expenditure through cardiovascular or resistance training. Thus, it helps individuals to lose weight in small bits (Knowlden & Sharma, 2012). The WHO has also outlined pharmacological treatments to help in the significant reduction of weight amongst individuals who have a high body mass index (Shrewsbury, 2019). Pharmacological interventions tend to be combined with psychological interventions to help individuals register improved weight loss outcomes. Although there are many pharmacological interventions, a few have been approved that can be used to treat overweight and obesity amongst adults. Another intervention that is essential in the treatment of overweight and obesity amongst adults is surgical intervention. Although surgical intervention is becoming increasingly popular in the treatment of overweight and obesity amongst adults, it is associated with various risks.
How I Would Implement the Interventions
I would implement dietary interventions by urging an individual to adopt an eating behavior or pattern whereby he or she takes less diet or macronutrients. Possible outcomes of this intervention would be demonstrated when the individual registers a decline in the body mass index compared to the previous mass index. The disadvantage of this intervention is that an individual would lose bodyweight for a short term, and regain weight in the long term. I would also implement exercise intervention by urging an individual to engage in regular physical activities to burn the fat content in the body to ultimately lose some weight. The outcome of this intervention would be measured when the individual presents a healthy life that is not at risk of overweight and obesity. I would implement pharmacological interventions by engaging an individual in the intake of medical drugs to help in the reduction of weight. The outcome of the medical intervention would be measured when an individual presents a decline in body mass index. I would also implement surgical interventions by engaging an overweight individual in surgical operations to remove some of the fat content out of their body. The intervention would be measured when an individual presents a significant decline in body mass index.
Interventions Result in Improved Outcomes, Cost Savings, and Improved Ratings
Interventions help to improve a patient’s health outcomes by reducing their risks of contracting diseases related to obesity and overweight. The interventions would also help patients to save on medical costs by decreasing patient hospitalizations, as well as reducing emergency room visits and their length of stay at the various facilities (Bezsheiko, 2017). The critiqued interventions can help to improve nurse practitioner-patient ratings whenever they improve patient outcomes and save them from spending additional costs on various medical procedures.
Excessive weight gain in individuals is attributable to a network of complex environmental and behavioral factors such as physical inactivity. WHO recognizes that factors such as physical inactivity largely contribute to overweight and obesity amongst adults. WHO recognizes that treatment interventions related to obesity include dietary, exercise, medical, and surgical interventions. I would implement dietary interventions by urging individuals to eat less fat-content foods. Besides, I would implement exercise interventions by urging individuals to engage in frequent physical activities to reduce fat-content in their body. Furthermore, I would implement medical intervention by engaging adults in the intake of drugs that help reduce weight. The interventions would help improve patient outcomes, reduce health costs, and improve nurse practitioner-patient ratings.
Bezsheiko, V. (2017). Comparative effectiveness of interventions for treatment of overweight and obesity. Psychosomatic Medicine and General Practice, 2(2), 020233. https://doi.org/10.26766/pmgp.v2i2.33
Knowlden, A. P., & Sharma, M. (2012). Systematic review of family and home-based interventions targeting paediatric overweight and obesity. Obesity Reviews, 13(6), 499–508. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789x.2011.00976.x
Shrewsbury, V. (2019). The effectiveness of dietary interventions for adolescents affected by overweight and obesity. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice, 13(3), 254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orcp.2018.11.055
Williamson, D. A. (2017). Fifty Years of Behavioral/Lifestyle Interventions for Overweight and Obesity: Where Have We Been and Where Are We Going? Obesity, 25(11), 1867–1875. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.21914