Please responds to these two post at least one page each and one cite for each page Thank you Post one Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder How do you differentiate between a normally active child and a child who has ADHD? Children who have ADHD (Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) suffer from a neurodevelopmental condition (Faraone et al., 2021). Children that have ADHD frequently have difficulties focusing, act impulsively, and are overly active. For healthcare providers to determine whether a youngster has ADHD or is simply being active and regular, a precise diagnosis is required. Children without ADHD tend to overuse their occasional difficulty focusing and paying attention. The correct diagnosis can be made by analyzing the condition\’s symptoms and the child\’s health. Daydreaming, excessive fidgeting, careless errors, and unwarranted risks are all symptoms of ADHD in children (Marshall, Hoelzle & Nikolas, 2021). A child with ADHD is also very chatty and struggles to make friends and get along with classmates. It might be difficult for him to get along with friends. It could be difficult for parents to tell if their child has ADHD. They understand the symptoms that children with the disease experience are crucial for this. Furthermore, it\’s critical to comprehend the many ADHD symptoms that a child may display. Most of these are inattentive presentations, preventing kids from finishing activities and paying attention to details. Children that exhibit predominantly hyperactive-impulsive behaviors frequently squirm too much when speaking. However, children may simultaneously exhibit illnesses and associated symptoms in a mixed presentation. 2. Who are the useful informants for a doctor diagnosing a child who may have ADHD and why? When identifying the disease, parents and teachers are typically the best sources of information. They are known as relevant informants. While the parent can provide information on the child\’s behavior at home, the school instructor can accurately describe the child\’s behavior. The teacher might evaluate children that exhibit hyperactivity and inattention in the classroom. They can also spot kids who have trouble concentrating in class. Parents, who spend a lot of time with their kids, can also corroborate these signs. They can share details about the child\’s routine outside of the classroom. The doctors will require this information to diagnose the child and appropriately provide suitable care. The TOVA test, or Test of Variables of Attention, is another name for it. This exam evaluates a child\’s capacity for maintaining attention while performing monotonous, repeated tasks. TOVA assesses a child\’s ability for impulse control amid more thrilling jobs. Over 21 minutes and a half is how long the TOVA test lasts. The examination is electronic and looks like a video game. The test consists of both audio and visual components. These components are handled differently. Doctors can determine whether patients have attention and impulse control issues based on the information gathered during a TOVA exam. Post 2 Q1. What non-pharmacological treatment has been useful in treating children with ADHD? Behavioral interventions — Behavioral interventions are preferred to medication as the initial intervention for preschool children with ADHD and are adjuncts to medication for school-aged children and adolescents. Behavioral interventions include modifications in the physical and social environment that are designed to change behavior using rewards and nonpunitive consequences. Example of behavioral techniques used for children with ADHD include positive reinforcement, time-out, response cost (withdrawing rewards or privileges when unwanted or problem behavior occurs), and token economy (a combination of positive reinforcement and response cost). Parent (or caregiver) training in behavior management (PTBM) is aimed at improving parent-child relationships through enhanced parenting techniques. Behavioral interventions are most effective if caregivers understand the principles of behavior therapy (i.e, identification of antecedents and altering the consequences of behavior) and the techniques are consistently implemented. Behavior therapy and environmental changes that can be used by caregivers or teachers to shape the behavior of children with ADHD include: – ●Maintaining a daily schedule ●Keeping environmental distractions to a minimum ●Providing specific and logical places for the child to keep their schoolwork, toys, and clothes ●Setting small, reachable goals ●Identifying unintentional reinforcement of negative behaviors ●Using charts and checklists to help the child stay \”on task\” ●Limiting choices ●Finding activities in which the child can be successful (eg, hobbies, sports) ●Using calm discipline (eg, time out, distraction, removing the child from the situation) ●Incredible Years Parenting Program ●New Forest Parenting Program (specifically designed to address ADHD symptoms) ●Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) ●Parent-Child Interaction Therapy ●Helping the Noncompliant Child Evidence supporting behavioral interventions for ADHD is limited. In an individual participant data meta-analysis that included children and adolescents with ADHD, behavioral interventions (eg, PTBM, classroom interventions, skills training) had small to moderate effects on individual and collective symptoms of ADHD and global impairment in unblinded assessments by parents or teachers. Additional tips for caregivers of children age 6 to 12 years are available through the National Initiative for Children\’s Health Quality toolkit Psychotherapy (counseling) can also be used as non-pharmacological interventions for ADHD. It help on how to handle emotions and frustration. It can be used to help improve their self-esteem. Counseling may also help family members better understand a child or adult with ADHD. Q.2 What are the reasons for an increase in the prevalence of ADHD diagnosis? ADHD Causes Some researchers until today failed to conclude or pinpoint for sure what causes ADHD. Several things may lead to it, including: Genes. ADHD tends to run in families. Brain chemicals. These may be out of balance in people with ADHD. Brain changes. Areas of the brain that control attention are less active in children with ADHD. Sugar has not been proven to be causing ADHD. Alternatively, ADHD has not been proven to be caused by too much TV, a stressful home life, poor schools, or food allergies. ADHD Risk Factors Studies have found that several risk factors may play a role in the development of ADHD. Some of them affect a baby’s brain development during pregnancy: • Poor nutrition • Infections • Smoking • Drinking • Substance abuse Other things may affect a child\’s brain development after birth. Some of the thing’s researchers have looked at include: • Being born prematurely • Toxins, such as lead • A brain injury or a brain disorder. Damage to the front of the brain, called the frontal lobe, can cause problems controlling impulses and emotions. • “Western” diet. One study found that children who ate a diet high in added sugar, fats, and sodium and low in fiber and omega-3 fatty acids had a greater chance of ADHD. • Nutritional deficiencies: Food additives. There may be a link between food coloring additives and preservatives and ADHD, but this may only be for children who are already at a high level of risk for the condition. • Family income. Children from low-income families or families that have a drop in income have a greater chance of having ADHD. Recommendations on how to Live With ADHD A few lifestyle changes have been mentioned to help a child manage symptoms: A Healthy diet with lots of fruits, veggies, whole grains, and lean protein. Get some exercise every day. Studies find that exercise helps control impulses and other behavior problems in kids with ADHD. Engage child in for a various sports team, such as basketball, soccer, or baseball. Playing a sport, it teaches them important social skills, such as how to follow rules and take turns. Limit time spent on electronic devices. Encourage sufficient hours for sleeping. Simplify your child\’s room to lessen distractions, like toys, and improve organization.