Sample Nursing Paper on Foundation of Gerontology

Foundation of Gerontology

One of the challenges that the healthcare sector faces today is antibiotics resistance. Resistance, in this case, refers to the capability of bacteria and other germs to withstand exposure to external influences. An example is whereby some bacteria in the stomach become resistant to gastric acid when they are covered with a mucous coating that protects them from the acid. Scientists argue that one way to combat antibiotics resistance is switching between two antibiotics. For example, the shift from the usual treatment regimen to Vancomycin has been said to combat Staphylococcus resistance. Despite its benefits to antibiotic resistance, antibiotic switching has health implications (“Using medication,” 2013). For instance, the man was introduced to different antibiotics during his stay at the hospital and, as a result, his immunity reduced. Studies show that the overuse of antibiotics reduces the effectiveness of neutrophils (a type of immune cell) in fighting infections. Therefore, is also likely that the man is at risk of antibiotics’ side effects, such as allergic reactions, nausea, fungal infections, and bowel problems.

The administration of multiple antibiotics in a short duration can have adverse effects on body organs, such as the stomach (“Using medication,” 2013). The switch between the drugs in question means that the bacteria found in the gut, both good and bad, are highly likely to be killed. The outcome is that normal operations or processes in the stomach and the intestines are compromised. Researchers have found that people who take more than three antibiotics within a short period are 1.5 times more likely to develop stomach problems and irritable bowel disease.

The effectiveness of antibiotics depends on one’s diet or nutrition. For the elderly man in questioon, recovery is reliant on how effective the antibiotics administered will be. Some of the things he should consider avoiding are dairy products and alcohol as they affect how the body absorbs the drugs. Regarding dairy products, his diet ought to be free of milk, butter, cheese, and yogurt. He must also avoid grapefruit and other dietary supplements that contain minerals, such as calcium, which dampen the effect of antibiotics in the body. Moreover, after taking the prescribed antibiotics, he should wait for around three hours before drinking or eating food that contains dairy products (“Using medication,” 2013).

When providing care to elderly persons that are nearing death one should focus on anticipating, preventing, diagnosing, and treating the symptoms that they experience. The goal of providing care for such individuals is preventing or relieving suffering and improving the quality of life (Pandey & Kr̥shṇadāsa Akādamī, 2002). One of the quality of life aspects that is relevant to the provision of care to such persons is physical comfort. In most cases, seniors who are nearing death can be uncomfortable because of pain, breathing problems, fatigue, temperature sensitivity, digestive problems, and skin irritation. A caregiver must focus on addressing these problems when handling an elderly person near death. For instance, to relieve pain, the caregiver must administer pain medicine as prescribed. Meeting the mental and emotional needs of an elderly person near death is equally important. When alert, people near the end of life feel depressed and anxious thus the caregiver should come up with conversations about feelings. Contacting a counsellor who is familiar with end-of-life issues can also help in such situations.




Pandey, G., & Kr̥shṇadāsa A. (2002). Foundation of gerontology. Varanasi: Krishnadas Academy. Retrieved from

Using medication: Using antibiotics correctly and avoiding resistance. (2013, December 18). NCBI.         Retrieved from