Sample Nursing Paper on Malaria

Sample Nursing Paper on Malaria

Malaria is described as a life-threatening disease that is usually transmitted through the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. This type of disease is most prevalent in the tropical and sub-tropical areas where the female Anopheles mosquitos flourish and multiply due to the favorable conditions.  Infected Anopheles mosquitos are known to carry the plasmodium parasite that serves as the main causative agent for Malaria disease. Majority of people who are at a larger risk of being infected by Malaria reside in the sub-tropical and tropical climatic regions of the world. Additionally, a number of people who transit and travel to regions where Malaria is more prevalent are prone to get Malaria infections.

 

 

Malaria, its Causes, and Potential Impact

Even though Malaria has gradually receded from the North, it has continued to maintain its grip on populations living in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa and Asia.  Malaria is a life-threatening disease that kills three people every minute. The warm and moist conditions that characterize the sub-tropical and tropical climatic regions provide a favorable atmosphere for breeding of the Anopheles mosquitos. Temperatures of around 300 C and humidity levels of above 62% serve as optimal conditions for mosquito breeding (Marcus 6). Furthermore, the continuous breeding of the female anopheles mosquitos facilitates the rapid replication of the Plasmodium parasite. Female Anopheles mosquitoes transmit the Plasmodium when they bite people infecting them with malaria (Packard 15).  There are four main species of parasites that are normally carried and transmitted from one person to another by the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito.  Malaria is described as a fatal disease as the parasite mainly targets the red blood cells which once infected, bursts thereby causing a blockage of the small blood vessels in vital body organs. In certain cases, this condition may proliferate into a worse status that could ultimately lead to an individual’s death. Nonetheless, the severity of Malaria depends on the individual’s level of immunity which is usually elevated by constant exposure to a Malaria-infected mosquito. However, most people traveling to high Malaria prevalence regions are at a greater risk of acquiring Malaria.

Today, almost half of the world’s population is at risk of getting Malaria infections. The Sub-Saharan population accounts for about 90% of the Malaria clinical cases and approximately 90% of the Malaria deaths all over the world (Jamieson et al., 98). The children, most of who are under the age of five years are always at a higher risk of acquiring Malaria as opposed to the adult population. Thus, children residing in the tropical and sub-tropical regions are vulnerable and at risk of getting Malaria infections. The high incidence of Malaria in tropical and sub-tropical regions continues to have an array of negative impacts on both the infected and affected population (Mali 51). The high prevalence of malaria imposes a substantial cost on both the individual and the government.

Most African countries are described as being epidemic regions of Malaria. High incidences of Malaria are financial burdens to families as well as the government. The increased financial responsibilities include purchasing drugs, supplies, and staffing of health facilities, premature deaths and the cost of low productivity. The economy also tends to suffer as a result of the reduced level of productivity caused by a reduced workforce. In endemic regions, malaria accounts for 15% of health-related absenteeism from school (Marcus 8). According to CDC research study report, at least $12 billion is used annually by governments to prevent, control, treat and mitigate Malaria infection rates (WHO 23).

The Extent of Malaria in the World

On an annual basis, approximately 1.5 to 3 million people die from Malaria infections. A vast majority of the infected population come from developing Sub-Saharan countries whereas a small percentage of the total malaria infections occur in tropical and sub-tropical areas in the Middle East, South and Central America, Asia and Oceania (Jamieson et al. 21). To add to these statistics, most travelers from less endemic regions usually get Malaria as they tour the highly prevalent tropical and subtropical regions of the world.

According to the statistical reports released by CDC in the year 2015, approximately 212 million cases of Malaria occurred worldwide where 429,000 people were reported to have succumbed from Malaria infection (WHO 3). In addition, around 1,500 citizens living in the United States are annually diagnosed with Malaria (Mali 4). This number is expected to shoot given the fact that most cases of infections reported in the United States arise when the citizens travel to the Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia where malaria is the most prevalent disease (Mali 12).

 

Why international response is required

Ever since the ancient times when Malaria was discovered to be a life-threatening disease, various organizations have concerted efforts to eradicate it from highly endemic world zones. The process of eradicating and mitigating cases of Malaria infections have been pursued through the introduction of antimalarial drugs as well as chemical means of controlling the population of Anopheles mosquitos. However, some of the antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine have lost their efficacy as a result of the widespread resistance of Plasmodium falciparum (Marcus 81).

The International response is an essential part of the solution because Malaria is a global health concern.

One of the most renowned organizations that has put significant effort in mitigating Malaria prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa is the Centre for Disease Control. Having it’s headquarters in the United States, CDC has some of its branches in the most endemic regions in the world. CDC has endlessly attempted to eradicate Malaria by employing some of the most erudite medical researchers to investigate on possible and most effective ways of controlling and eventually eliminating Malaria worldwide. In order to eliminate Malaria, CDC’s strategies are based on extensive basic science research that entail laboratory practicals and applied research. Some of the interventions made by CDC in an attempt to prevent Malaria infections include; widespread distribution of insecticide-treated nets,  indoor residual spraying, arteminisin-based combination therapy and intermittent preventive treatment for pregnant women.  These interventions have proved to be eminently essential in eradicating Malaria in the most endemic parts of the world.

Conclusion

To sum up, I believe that the control and mitigation of Malaria by the international organizations would benefit the world at large. Not only will this move reduce deaths caused by Malaria disease but it would also reduce poverty levels.  Effective intervention by the international organizations would benefit the entire world by saving countries the huge economic costs and social distress caused by Malaria disease. This would also help the malaria-endemic developing nations to reduce poverty level as they would be granted effective health solutions for the control and treatment of Malaria disease.

 

References

Packard, Randall M. The making of a tropical disease: a short history of malaria. JHU Press, 2010. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=-ePZU9CX9L4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+Making+of+a+Tropical+Disease:+A+Short+History+of+Malaria&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=The%20Making%20of%20a%20Tropical%20Disease%3A%20A%20Short%20History%20of%20Malaria&f=false

Jamieson, Andrew. Malaria: A traveller’s guide. Struik, 2006. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=FhfuV22JZ_sC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Malaria:+A+Traveller%27s+Guide.&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj1uuH8tcnUAhVhL8AKHaKkD3sQ6AEIJjAA#v=onepage&q=Malaria%3A%20A%20Traveller’s%20Guide.&f=false

Marcus, Bernard A. Malaria. New York, N.Y: Chelsea House, 2009. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=UgBpkGsg0ukC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Malaria.&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi2seyctsnUAhVkJsAKHRj2CQAQ6AEIOjAE#v=onepage&q=Malaria.&f=false

World Health Organization. Guidelines for the treatment of malaria. World Health Organization, 2015. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=IVo0DgAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Guidelines+for+the+Treatment+of+Malaria&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjxuuXPtsnUAhVMKsAKHUC5BEYQ6AEIJjAA#v=onepage&q=Guidelines%20for%20the%20Treatment%20of%20Malaria&f=false

World Health Organization., & World Health Organization,. (2015). World Malaria Report 2015. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=rg4LDgAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=World+Malaria+Report+2015&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwir1Jr4tsnUAhVGKcAKHcWPD8sQ6AEIIjAA#v=onepage&q=World%20Malaria%20Report%202015&f=false

Mali, Sonja, et al. Malaria surveillance–United States, 2008. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5907a1.htm