Sample Paper on Architecture, Building and Planning


Architectural modernism refers to the building style popular after the 1940s in which artists used plain shapes and artificial materials. Modern architecture varies from the traditional design and aesthetics. Modernism in architecture is a design language that emphasizes on form instead of ornament. It also emphasizes on structure and materials instead of picturesque constructions. The major objective of the architecture is to create home designs that are beyond the standard concepts. The design further pursues objects, which are inspired by layout, location, and function. Major themes in modern architecture comprise simplicity and clarity of forms and reduction of irrelevant details, visual expression of structure, and international style modernism.

Comparison and contrast of modern architecture with earlier expressions of intersection of religion and architecture

Primary tenets of modern architecture accentuated utility, function, sculptural form, symbolism, and abstract beauty. Modern architecture is free of clutter and irrelevant elements. the objective of the project is clarified from the beginning and only required characters are included in the design. Residential homes are mainly stripped down to illustrate the design of the home focusing on the space instead of the décor and details insignificant in the design. Homeowners who desire modern aesthetic believe in the statement that less is more to imply that the homeowners prefer simplicity and clarity. They believe that by applying this design, houses will be clean, functional, and simple. Modern architecture consists of varying degrees such as strict design of true minimalism, minimalist aesthetics of modernism in relation to personal style. Personal choice of design elements like colors, textures and interesting furnishing enable to create a unique modern style.

Instead of hiding the nature of the home, modern style reveals the inner workings and true nature of the project to the viewer. Materials are revealed in their natural form or at times altered to resemble other items. Furthermore, structural elements are showcased to depict structure and support. Exposed beams, open floor plans and other structural elements can be easily viewed by the viewer. A sense of truth is presented in the home with all the materials and architectural elements honestly revealed. Additionally, in modern architecture, lines are depicted in this design with stronger linear elements and bold horizontal and vertical characters. This design incorporates the use of beams, posts, cutout, staircases, fireplaces, and rooflines among structural elements. The aim of these aspects is to create linear inspired space, absent in traditional styles. Modern architecture is therefore straight and angled instead of being curved. Rather than using the traditional triangular-based roof lines, modern homes tend to have multiple roof lines at varying levels. This design depicts the challenges in the general design and precise silhouette of the structure. These varying lines and extended vaulted ceilings in addition to remarkable linear elements generate unique statement.

Windows in the medieval period was included in the structure of the house to bring in light. In this modern architecture, windows are incorporated in the design to preserve privacy other than letting in light. This is achieved by incorporating clerestory windows set high in the walls. Open living or kitchen areas are in this design accented with a fireplace as the meeting place. This creativity is included to enhance space. Other creative measures include dividing the floors on split-levels and through sunken spaces for conversation. Fewer walls are incorporated in these designs other than open interior floor plans to add aspects of more space in the house. Other than serving as support walls, the interior walls in these designs act as room dividers and for appearance. Pony walls in most of the rooms appear below the ceiling to divide the room while allowing adequate light to set in. in modern architecture, multiple rooms give way to large patio, a design employed to distinguish between the indoor and the outdoor materials of the house. Contemporary architecture includes topography of the land within the design of the house. In addition, manufactured floorings are blended with wood and bricks in the modern houses. Modern technologies such as radiant floor heat are included together with the atop slab concrete foundation technology.

In general, modernism is identified by flat pitch hip roofs with churches having huge and sweeping forms of these roofs. Walls are made of contrasting materials and features with the offices emphasizing on grid. Windows are special with corners or pictures marked with huge expanses of glass. Landscape has been integrated as the doors mostly encompass sliding glass, patios, glass, courtyards, and use of natural materials.

On the other hand, religion in the past played a significant role in defining traditional architecture. Initially, buildings originated from the basic needs of security, and shelter and for means (). With the development of human culture and knowledge, oral traditions evolved to become a practice. Architecture therefore was the form of art defined by highly formalized and honored aspects of craft. During these periods, architectural success was a generation of the trial and error depicted mainly in the religious buildings such as pyramids. Architecture was therefore mainly applied to reflect aspects of divinity and supernatural powers in the cultures of men. For instance, palaces were architecturally built to depict the succession of power from one ruler to the other and political representation of power within the state.

Within the classical civilizations, architecture and urbanism evolved from civic models rather than empirical or religious, resulting to advanced building types such as the architectural styles. Advanced knowledge on scientific fields and emergence of new materials and technology resulted to advanced architecture and its division and engineering. Architects from then concentrated on aesthetics and humanist aspects ignoring much technical aspects in design. There was also the rise of the form of architect where builders concentrated on the affluent clients and visual qualities from historical models. Many houses in the Great Britain depict this form of architecture where emphasis is mainly made on the generation of beautiful drawings, with minimal context and feasibility. Effective architects relied on other architects to gain training at the privacy of their offices. This rise had moral philosophical and underpinnings. After the First World War, revolutionary architects developed another innovative style that focused on the need of the working and middle economic class.

Architectural modernism becomes intellectual when it is efficient, simple and most advanced type of structure. Construction bears features of perfect suitability and expression of mechanical knowledge of a tradition. Intelligence is also realized when it emphasizes simplicity and expresses system of support. Construction can be generally tracked to the period within the birth of Christ. Before then, construction majorly featured in Egyptian pyramid, Hindu Stupa, Sumerian Ziggurat and in the Japanese pagoda. These religious buildings were complicated in their design, in shape and in decoration. These buildings embraced symbolic systems and direction of the sun, but lacked internal space, since they were majorly aspects of architecture but not elements of construction.

With the emergence of intelligence, symbolic architecture replaced permanent construction within a space. Whole cities were therefore works of architecture with singular contributing elements such as places of worship, markets, and government institutions, which defined personal character. It was therefore possible for cities such as Rome to be built amid colorful domes, and decorated palaces. Interior spaces reflected symbolism through their shape and decoration as reflected in the Islamic mosques and in the Gothic churches.

Later on, a modern form of architecture was introduced where mass and interior spaces were stage-managed to generate beautiful pictures like the ones depicted in sculptures and in paintings. Instead of the primitive architecture, human-centered artwork was introduced that incorporated form and space for visual delight. It is apparent that at the beginning indestructible materials were employed for large structures for worship. Houses were built with weak materials, as they were not expected to outlive their owners. Architecture therefore was derived from religious inclination and was mainly symbolic. Traditional architectural productions were derived from huge stones, roughly defined in lines or in circles, expected to align with the direction of the sun.

Architectural refinement of the academic improvement was formally based on historical styles, which regarded the increasing aristocratic order. This move was made to minimize buildings and other structures of pure forms and historical references. Other than hiding the decorative forms, buildings relied on the functional and structural aspects that exposed steel beams and concrete surfaces. Architects like Frank Lloyd Wright came up with organic structure where the form was mainly defined by the environment and other natural occurrences. The aim was to enhance harmony between human residence and the natural world. Illustrations of this depiction include Falling water. Rather than focusing on the religious aspects, upcoming artists focused on the construction techniques that would focus on beauty and other inherent features of the materials they applied in construction. Traditional forms were traded with the simplified geometric forms that further applied innovative models and approaches like the steel-frame construction. This further implies that architectural modernism has significant associations with secular “non-religious” thought. These modern styles were thus resisted due to insufficient decorative richness of historical perspectives.


From the study, Modern architecture is spacious and relevant as its major objective is clarified from the beginning and only required characters are included in the design. Residential homes are open to demonstrate the design of the home focusing on the space instead of the décor and details insignificant in the design. Emergence of modern architecture has resulted to complications of the buildings as well as their increase. Architecture has presently become a multi-disciplinary rather than personal work. There is a distinction between design architect and project architect. Preparatory processes is assumed as complicated and demands for preliminary studies such as durability, quality, and compliance. This architecture is therefore not individual or an aesthetic pursuit of personalities.