Rail, road, maritime/sea, air, and pipeline are the five principal modes of transportation. Each of these modes has significant weaknesses and strengths that are important for businesses and individuals to consider and evaluate in the choice of the appropriate mode to use in a particular situation.
Rail, as a mode of transportation, features the advantage of a capacity to carry bulky goods, such that there is adequate space to cater for varying quantities and weights of products. Climatic conditions have no significant impact on the ability of rail to convey goods from place to place. Another important strength of rail transportation is the absence of traffic congestion, which ensures its efficiency and dependability. It is also the safest mode because of a very low prevalence of accidents. Nonetheless, rail transport features the weakness of high initial capital requirements and continuing investments on maintenance (Bepat, 2016). Rail transportation is also highly inflexible because of the heavy cost of alterations of routes and rail. Road transportation, on its part, features the strength of flexibility and provisions for the use of many different alternatives – cars, buses, trucks, donkey carts, bicycles, tankers, etc. Compared with other modes, road transportation also requires a low level of capital investment. In terms of disadvantages, road transportation is slow and time-consuming, especially when one considers the high level of traffic in urban areas and on main roads between states and cities (Engstrom, 2016). Road transportation is also highly vulnerable to pollution and damage to goods, and to threats to the safety of goods and people because of highly prevalent accidents and breakdowns.
The principal strength of marine or water transportation is low cost and a capacity to move bulky goods, including fuel and industrial goods, over huge distances. This mode of transportation features a low risk for safety, although accidents can cause huge losses from commercial and environmental perspectives. One of the major weaknesses of this mode is slowness, causing huge delays in the movement of products between places. It is also highly dependent on seasonal variations in weather patterns, particularly wind, tides, and water levels in particular waterways (Water Job Network, n.d.). Water transport also features the weakness of dependency on the depth of water in particular parts of oceans and seas. An important strength of air transportation is that it is the fastest mode, serving to transport goods and people across huge distances in a short time. In this context, it offers an efficient, quick, and regular service. Air transportation also enables access to areas that may be inaccessible by sea or rail. Nonetheless, it features the weaknesses of huge risks for safety and the need for huge initial and working capital investments (Thomas, 2008). Air transport also features the problem of the potential effects of weather on its operations, especially rainstorms and snow.
On its part, the pipeline as a mode of transportation features the strengths of low energy consumption, safety, and opportunities for automation to increase efficiency. It is highly efficient and cheap in the conveyance of gases and liquids, requiring limited maintenance. It can enable the transportation of these products in huge quantities and in bulk, thereby making such transportation efficient and cheap (IRMA, 2018). On the other hand, this mode features the weakness of a lack of flexibility, especially because it serves in the transportation of gases and liquids alone.
This discussion has identified the relative strengths and weaknesses of five modes of transportation. Based on the assessments, rail is the safest mode, while air is the fastest, road is the most flexible, and water/marine is the cheapest. The pipeline mode is the most inflexible because of its service to transport liquids and gases alone.
“Advantages and limitations of water transport” (2016, December 1). Water Job Network. Retrieved from: http://www.waterjobnetwork.net/advantages-and-limitations-of-water-transport/
Bepat, M. (2016, February). A comparison of road and rail transport for the benefit of the independent timber growers of natal cooperative timbers. University of South Africa. Retrieved from: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/95521601.pdf
Engstrom, R. (2016). The roads’ role in the freight transport system. Transportation Research Procedia 14: 1443-1452.
Information Resources Management Association (IRMA) (2018). Intelligent transportation and planning: Breakthroughs in research and practice. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Thomas, A. (2008). Aviation security management (3 volumes). West Port, CT: ABC-CLIO