Culture plays a significant role in the social formation of family units. However, it is not yet clear whether the aging minority communities are accessing adequate support services to help them remain intact within normal family structures. This is the reason why Chapter 27 reviews extensive literature on how broad array of factors influences the establishment of family units and foundation of building stronger societies. Specifically, literature in the chapter focuses on moral obligations of family members and how they are influenced by the external environment. In addition, this Chapter discusses fundamental issues of older adults, especially among the minority communities to establish how family structures, relationships, well-being and caregivers affect older adults. Meanwhile, Chapter 31 outlines the skewed nature of work and retirement structures within United States. Minorities are discussed to support the arguments of an inflexible and unfair work system. The analysis has been motivated by several qualitative studies that have emerged to criticize the skewed nature of American work system. Also, literature analysis within the Chapter focuses on obligations of family members and how they are influenced by the external environment. Consequently, the chapter adequately investigates America’s benefits and pension system. As revealed within the abstract, minorities are covered under less secure and less comprehensive plans. The social security issues matter is then evaluated to support arguments as to why minorities are disadvantaged.
Differential status of American Indian in USA
Disparities exist between the other Americans, American Indian and the tribes. Even though these minorities are eligible for services, the supports they get are largely from their leaders and community. This is supported by assertions of Kathleen Annette who encourages American Indians to get their education and return to work locally within their communities. Also, the aging population is supported by local initiatives. For example, the Bad River tribal centre that was commissioned in 2016 to cater for needs of the older adults. It is worth mentioning that American Indian have for long experienced low health status compared to other Americans. As a result, they exhibit lower life expectancy and a higher disease burden. Perhaps, the disparities and high incidences of disease are as a result of low-level education, intentional discrimination, cultural differences, and poverty.
With the help of policymakers, tribal leaders and professionals like Kathleen, the differential gaps can be bridged. For instance, the establishment of tribal colleges continues imparting the necessary knowledge to the American Indian people. The colleges are offering help, guidance and support to potential professionals as they pick their careers. Though, Kathleen cautions that these students should pursue career that will have massive impact in societies. This is the core reason why most of these students pursue community and family health as this can positively impact on tribal communities. Kathleen cautions them from becoming distinguished surgeons as it may not offer much help in the long term. Due to advocacy, collaborations and negotiations, the Indian Health Service has come in hand to tackle medical disparities and alleviate diseases burden. As follows, the Indian health Service advocates for prevention rather than cure. Fundamentally, this has been realistically achieved through education by creating awareness on the need to look at potential issues before they actually happen. The tribal systems must continue enthusiastically supporting such initiatives through policy. There is considerable progress and things are looking positive for the American Indian and tribes. Overall, efforts aimed at reducing disparities are critical in ostensibly promoting diversity and inclusion within the American society.