There are various factors that help to distinguish between different social classes including the level of political activity, educational level, and the roles and responsibilities they play in institutions. The upper-middle class is more politically active whereby they are conservative on economic issues and liberal on social issues whereas the working class tends to be less politically active but conservative on social issues and liberal on economic issues.
The educational level among the working class is limited since they vary in skills while the upper-middle class requires a college degree to get a job opportunity. Additionally, the upper-middle class comprises of key decision makers in institutions while the working class includes physical laborers. The upper-middle have authority to make decisions on how a particular job should be done while the working class makes their own decisions on how to do their jobs.
b.) General areas of government spending and welfare
The government supplies public goods that benefit the society either directly or indirectly. For example the provision of defense, highways and public school systems maximizes equality of opportunity. These public goods are provided regardless of the class thereby each and every class benefits from goods.
It provides welfare services, home insurance, low-costs of student loans and also aids in distribution of transfer payments to people. The poor, the middle and the wealthy are the major recipients of welfare. This is because welfare programs are designed to benefit those who need them. It does not align with the public perception of welfare since the public perceives welfare programs as for the poor only. Welfare programs are all round, they are carried out to benefit all classes in different ways. Welfare directed to the middle and upper class members of the society through tax breaks are referred to as “wealthfare”. Through “wealthfare” the government pays interest on the debts it accumulates and this helps in federal budget.
- Compare and contrast Mill’s power elite theory and Domhoff’s ruling-class view
Mill’s power elite theory posits that power helps one to get favorable treatments on particular issues. Lobbyists may give out money to officials so that they may be favored in some fields. It also helps one to get access to the public officials. Institutions and some individuals also use power to enable them get directly into contact with certain public officials.
On the other hand, Domhoff’s ruling class theory avers that race leads to competition for jobs which leads to ethnic hostilities that divide working classes. The migrants provide cheap labor hence prejudices used by higher priced labor creates opposition to the cheap labor presented by the minority.
b.) Conditions of inner-city African Americans
Duneier points out that from the early days of colonialism, the Europeans always assumed to be more technologically and morally superior to those they encountered. This gave them the urge to start new businesses and developments in the countries they colonized.
Racism leads to slave trade whereby those who visit the American countries are taken as slaves and given hard tasks. They regard the idea of equal opportunity but they don’t obey it. Most of Africans are not given opportunities by the Americans since they fear the creation of policies that supports the “equality of opportunities.”
Only the white society has a complete class structure that respects the lower class that works. The white middle class dwellers served the black community well and this was a sign of success and moral values.
c.) Tavernise on the impacts of recession on the Hispanics
Blacks of various social classes lived side by side and racially shared separate neighborhood institutions. Collapsing of the housing market of the Hispanics lead to decrease in wealth since their net worth in 2005 came from home equity. A third of the Hispanics who depended on the housing marketing had zero or negative net worth in 2009 and therefore owned nothing but a car.
d.) Households income rating
Comparing the different races in the U.S today, the Asian Americans have a higher average household income due to their high-ranking occupations. They have high levels of achievement in education, and are average in every measure of their hard work and commitment. These factors contribute to their relatively high household incomes.