Henry Fayol’s Management Principles
During the early times, managers had few resources to refer to enable them develop their management practice. On the other hand, early theorists like Henri Fayol provided tools that enabled managers to lead and manage more efficiently. His management theory provides a simple and clear model of how an organization’s management interacts with their staff. He is recognized for building the foundation for modern management theory by proposing five major ways in which personnel in organizations interact in order to control and schedule production.
Organization personnel interact through planning. According to Fayol, organizations should plan and schedule their company operations. Planning enables an organization stick to their deliverables in the production process (Tulsian, Tulsian & Pandey, 2008). Organizing also provides a basis for interaction in the organization. In this case, management should ensure that they have access to the necessary resources to enable them carry on the production process. Further, Fayol encouraged commanding in organizations as this encourages a direct personnel activity between the organization management and employees. Coordinating, which entails working together in a cooperative manner is another factor identified by Fayol. Finally, he identified controlling to be an important factor in an organization such that the management should be able to assess whether employees are following the management commands. Major henry Fayol’s management principles are explained in detail as follows.
Division of work
Practically, people specialize in different fields enabling them to gain different skills and knowledge that are distinguished by various levels of expertise in the respective field. Most professional developments encourage people to specialize in their respective areas as this enables them to gain more skill and knowledge. According to Fayol, specialization in a certain field increases production and promotes efficiency in the work place.
Authority and responsibility
Management should be able to exercise authority by giving orders to the employees in order to get things done in an organization and as a fact, authority goes hand in hand with responsibility. Fayol indicates that, authority offers a right to the management to direct orders to their subordinates (Taylor, TotalBoox & TBX, 2016). In this case, there should be a clear line of management and division of roles in order to be able to exercise authority in the right manner.
This principle encourages obedience in the workplace and often forms part of the fundamental values of a mission and vision that takes the form of respect and exceptional conduct. This principle is essential in an organization and is seen as a lubricant to accelerate smooth running of operations in an organization. Management call for discipline as it makes it easier for communication and segregation of duties to the subordinates.
Unity of command
This principle indicates that an employee can only receive orders from one manager to whom they are answerable to. Receiving orders from more than one manager may likely cause confusion in an organization since the employee will not know whose orders to follow. On the same ground, two managers giving orders may give conflicting orders thus causing confusion to the employees. Following the unity of command, the origin of a mistake is easily traced and rectified.
Unity of direction
This principle ensures focus and unity in an organization in that employees are able to carry out their assigned duties linked to similar objectives and goals of the organization. Employees in an organization work as a team and carry out the organization’s activities determined in a plan of action. The organization manager is finally responsible for the plan of action and follows on the progress of the identified and scheduled activities. The focus areas represent the determinations made by employees and coordination.
Subordination of personal interest
In order for an organization to run smoothly, Fayol considers that employee’s personal interests are secondary to those of the organization (Tulsian, Tulsian & Pandey, 2008). Therefore, this means that the employee’s interests can only be recognized once the organization’s interests have been achieved. Employees cannot work to achieve the organizations objectives while holding to their personal objectives and this applies to all levels of management in the organization.
The degree of centralization
Management and authority should be properly balanced while undertaking the decision making process in an organization. However, this depends on the nature of the organization including the hierarchy of management and size of the organization. Centralization in this case refers to leaving decision-making mandate to the top managers of an organization. On the other hand, sharing the decision making process with the subordinate staff is referred to decentralization. Fayol indicated that organizations should strive to have equilibrium between centralization and decentralization.
Organizations are guided by hierarchy of management, which varies, from the top management to the subordinate staff in the organization. Fayol indicates that an organization should have a clear line of authority that indicates duties of all employees in an organization from the top to the lower level managers (Taylor, TotalBoox & TBX, 2016). This can be recognized as an example of a management structure where employees are able to contact a superior manager in case of an emergency. This normally applies in cases of calamities where such issues are reported to the immediate managers. Other principles of management recognized by Fayol include equity, stability of tenure of personnel, initiative and spirit de corps.
Absence of one person no longer halts progress
If a team lead is sick of engaged somewhere it does not mean that the team went on pause. Employees are able to handle tasks as usual.
In conclusion, Fayol’s principles of management can be applied in the management of an organization and they provide better tools for planning, organization, decision-making control and coordination. These principles apply today in most organizations to ensure efficiency and increased productivity.
Tulsian, P. C., Tulsian, P. C., & Pandey, V. (2008). Business organisation and management. New Delhi: Pearson Education.
Taylor, F. W., TotalBoox,, & TBX,. (2016). The Principles of Scientific Management. Cosimo Classics.