Sample Paper on Interpersonal Relationship on Job Satisfaction

The Effect of Interpersonal Relationship on Job Satisfaction and the Effect of Age on Annual Salary

Job satisfaction has been a subject of study at different levels of management. This is largely because of its relevance with regards to the psychological and physical wellbeing of the workforce. It is possible to use job satisfaction as an essential indicator on the feelings of employees towards their employment positions. This can be used in prediction of different aspects of behavior such as absenteeism, turnover, and teamwork (Altaf, & Awan, 2011). The success of an organization is often dependent on the ability of its employees to identify and embrace their responsibilities (Khan, 2011).

This study aims at conducting an assessment of the effects of interpersonal relationships on job satisfaction. The main research question of this study will be to establish whether there is any relationship between interpersonal relationships and employees’ level of job satisfaction at their workplaces. The study hypothesizes that interpersonal relationship is positively correlated with job satisfaction. In other words, if an employee has a strong interpersonal relationship with his/her colleagues, then that person would be more satisfied with his/her job.

Purpose

The purpose of this study will be to demonstrate how predictor variables account for variances in criterion variables. This study will have two parts. For the first part, the criterion variable will be job satisfaction while the predictor variable will be interpersonal relationship. For the second part, salary will be the criterion variable while age will be the predictor variable.

The effect of interpersonal relationship on the degree of job contentment

An essential part that determines the degree of employee satisfaction is social contact. This provides employees with adequate time for socialization. These can be considered as lunch, breakfast or dinner discussions. This is an essential aspect for organizational growth considering that it helps in the development of a sense of belonging among employees that in return enhances teamwork (Kusku, 2003).

It is possible for management teams to contain deviant behavior such as rudeness and inappropriate comments if they share relatively fair interpersonal relationship with employees. For instance, for a supervisor to guarantee coordination within his area of work, it would be important that he or she identifies the best ways to engage his subordinates (Khan, 2011). Through such engagement employees will feel accepted and respected. When employees work in an environment characterized by mutual respect and cooperation there will be high levels of job satisfaction and this explains the relationship between interpersonal relationship and job satisfaction (Kusku, 2003).

The relationship of age and annual salary

Age is a variable that plays a substantial role in the determination of numerous factors within an organization. This is largely due to assumption that those individuals who are considered to be senior in terms of their age are equipped with years of experience. This is derived from the notion that their existence in the work market has often played a role in promoting the possibility that they have been involved in different employment positions.

This study aims at assessing the relationship between age and annual salaries. My main research question is: what is the relationship between and the annual salaries that employees in organizations receive? Lastly, I hypothesized that age is positively correlated with salary.

The effect of considering age when allocating salaries to employees

Salaries and wages are considered as important aspect in motivating employees to realizing job satisfaction. For organizations to be able to realize that there the development of an effective methodology of motivating its employees through salaries there are variables such as age that must be considered. This consideration is however effective when age is used in measuring the levels of experience and employee contribution to the organization in relation to their expertise. Older employees are often considered to possess wealth of knowledge and expertise on how to execute different organizational responsibilities; Hence, the need for better remuneration (Khan, 2011).

Overall theoretical assumption

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs provides a perfect explanation for the essence of motivation in the generation of the intended output. For employees to realize any form of job satisfaction there must be sufficient structures that promote interpersonal relationships. The satisfaction of basic necessities such as physiological needs, employee safety, and feeling of belonging, self-esteem and self-actualization will generate a positive attitude towards what employees do hence enable employees to realize organizational goals and objectives. This theory supports the proposed hypotheses of the study (Montana and Bruce 2008, p. 238).

Methods

Participants

Researchers collected information from 9517 participants from a prestigious company in the United States of America. 46.5% of participants were female, while the majority was male 53.5%. The mean age of the participants was between 40 and 50 years old. The participants were predominately Caucasian (72.3%), African American (15.1%), Hispanic or Latino (6.2%), Asian (8.2%), American Indian (2.0%), and other Pacific Islander (.9%). Originally we had 9773 participants, but some participants were removed because of missing data.

Materials

I have used the following questions which were measured on a 5 point Likert scale in order to measure job satisfaction, (α =.83): “I am treated with respect,” “My opinion counts at work,” “Overall I am satisfied with my supervisor,” and “Overall I am satisfied with my managers above my immediate supervisor.” In addition, to asses interpersonal relationship I have used the following questions which were measured on a 5 point Likert scale, (α =.74): “Regular interactions with my colleagues are important to my job,” “Regular interactions with my colleagues are important to me personally,” “Overall, I have positive relationships with my colleagues,” and “My colleagues routinely pitch in to help me when needed.” An example on the scale used to test both types of questions is: 1:Strongly disagree, 2:Disagree, 3: Neither, 4:Agree, 5: Strongly agree

However, to assess age of employees I have used the following question, which was measured on an 8-point Likert scale, “What is your age?” The scale used to test this question was: 1=25 or under, 2=26-29, 3= 30-35, 4= 36-39, 5= 40-49, 6= 50-59, 7= 60-69, 8= 70 or older. In addition, I have used the following question to assess annual salary of employees at the company, “What is your annual salary, including locality pay?” This question was measured on a 9 point Likert scale.

Procedure

Participants completed the previously mentioned survey online on survey monkey. Participants were briefed on the objectives of the study before starting the survey. In addition, before starting the survey, participants signed an electronic consent form. I used a correlation analysis for this study.

Analysis of Data

The study employed descriptive data analysis to provide a comprehensive profile of the research participants. The study also used Pearson Correlation Coefficient as a technique of testing the link between the variables of the study. The use of Correlation Coefficient (r) accommodates a range between -1.000 to +1.000, which describes the strength and direction of the relationship between the two variables of each hypothesis.

Results

Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. 95.0% Confidence Interval for B
B Std. Error Beta Lower Bound
1 (Constant) 3.998 .189 21.193 .000 3.628
interpersonal .714 .011 .533 62.195 .000 .691

Table 1: the dependent variable is job satisfaction

Significance level is 5%

The above data indicates that the calculated t value for interpersonal relationship is 62.195. This value is highly significant at a significance level of 0.05 because it is higher than 1.96. In addition, this value is highly significant at the said significance level because its significance level, which is at 0.000, is smaller than 0.05.

For the second table, the calculated t value for age is 34.894. This value is also highly significant at a significance level of 0.05 because it is higher than 1.96. In addition, this value is highly significant at the said significance level because its significance level, which is at 0.000, is smaller than 0.05.

Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. 95.0% Confidence Interval for B
B Std. Error Beta Lower Bound Upper Bound
(Constant) 3.121 .056 55.712 .000 3.011 3.231
age .366 .010 .338 34.894 .000 .345 .386

Table 2: the dependent variable is salary

Significance level is 5%

Discussion

A look at the results indicates that interpersonal relationship accounts for variance in job satisfaction. This is in relation to the fact that the calculated t value for this factor is highly significant at a significance level of 0.05. In fact, results indicate that for every unit increase in job satisfaction, there is 0.714 unit increase in interpersonal relationship. Given that interpersonal relationship is the predictor variable, then it is the one that causes the said unit increase in job satisfaction. This finding is consistent with Herzberg’s two-factor theory. The said theory claims that interpersonal relationship is one of the hygiene factors that influence job satisfaction (Herzberg et al., 1957).

For the second part of the findings, results indicate that age accounts for variance in salary. In this case, salary is the criterion variable while age is the predictor variable. The findings indicate that for every unit increase in salary, there is 0.366 unit increase that result from age. The above findings demonstrate how predictor variables account for variance in criterion variables.

Limitations of the research

This research was limited to the analysis the effect of interpersonal relationships on job satisfaction and the relationship between age and the amount of salaries that employees are allocated. This does not provide a broad perspective of the tenets of the employee environment considering that it neglects other factors that also contribute to the degree of job contentment among employees. There is need for future studies to engage in an in-depth analysis of additional motivational factors.

Major contributions

The outcomes of this research will contribute to the knowledge that exists on matters related to job satisfaction and in the techniques that organizations can use in the allocation of salaries to employees. The findings will also help in developing ways through which the management can improve on its relationship with employees.

Conclusion

An interpersonal relationship serves an essential role in the growth and maintenance of a mutual relationship between workers at different levels. The success of an organization can also be realized through appropriate allocation of salaries while considering age as an essential variable.

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