Sample Paper on Nursing Concepts and Missed Questions; Immunity


Immunity is the ability of the body to protect itself against the bacterial and viral infections that try to attack it. A patient, a male patient of about ten years at the hospital, was suffering from diarrhea and vomiting. From the description of the patient, he was suffering from cholera because he was dehydrated, had a fast heartbeat rate, and he his blood pressure was low. The patient is protected using clean and boiled drinking water and make sure of proper sanitation at home and when using the toilets. Cholera’s cure lies in hydration of the body, which can be done in various ways depending on how severe the state of illness is. The immunity of the boy may not have been strong enough to protect him against bacteria that cause cholera.

Mood and Affect

An adolescent girl at the hospital explained to me that her thoughts often included suicide; she was always anxious, sad, and feeling vague without hopes of the future. From the report given by the girl about the history of her illness and from my observation, I diagnosed that the girl to be at the earlier stages of depression. The state of the girl could be improved by a prescription of medicine, including therapy. Therapy is the most crucial first treatment for patients undergoing mild depression (Katzung, and Bertram 2017).


Health, Wealth and Wellness

A fifty-year-old man called Conway was at the hospital with the aim of discovering his state of health and wellness. The man expressed a feeling of not being well in terms of health, and he could feel that although age was crawling in, he could tell that his spirits were under siege. The feeling of fainting, nausea, and fatigue were the major symptoms that he reported. I diagnosed that his blood pressure was running low. I advised him to avoid alcohol, drink more beverages without alcohol, eat food with more salt, and do more physical exercise to promote the flow of blood (McCullough, and Kristin 2017). I also advised him to avoid straining regularly or remain standing for long periods. On top of that, I gave him Midodrine to activate an increase in blood pressure in very small arteries and veins by activating their reception.


I experienced a case where the safety of a patient was breached when a young patient was brought to me. Allan was a 16year old boy who had been administered with the wrong medication due to a packaging mix-up. The boy all in panic, but I assured him to relax because everything would be alright by the grace of God. I took the boy and lay him down on the bed and told him to relax. The first thing to do was to neutralize the wrong medicine and administer the right one. So I gave him an injection of a neutralizing agent and then put him down to sleep allowing for the reaction to take place. He woke up later to an injection of the right medicine then laid down for a while to feel himself. I have seen the boy recently doing well, although he has not fully recovered from his illness. However, that was what is supposed to be done when the safety of a patient is breached.



As a nurse, I once had a patient who showed signs of nervousness, hesitation, and somehow incapacitated every time I tried to strike a conversation with them. The 30-year-old man called Derrick always slowed down or hindered the discussion, which would help me handle the matter at hand. So, I had to be friendly and approach the man with the intention of hearing him open up about his experiences and expectations. That was what I did. I considered with care the time venue to talk to the patient and to allow more time for us to talk without disturbance. We had a conversation for a long time, and I can say that my method of communication worked adequately, and I was able to extract the information needed to be able to cure the man. Effective communication helps much in nursing because one is able to give explanations about facts and figures when performing tasks on patients and get to know how they feel.


Basic Nursing

Nurses need to show professionalism and awareness of culture when doing their work. They should also be able to think critically and pay attention to details. Their communication should be fluent and effective to be able to reach out to every patient they attend to. A nurse should also uphold the safety of the patient in the hospital and also devote to taking care of the patient no matter what the situation is.

I was once assigned to address victims of a fatal road accident that occurred near our hospital. Most of the patients in the emergency ward were looking gross with deep cuts and extreme injuries. A nurse who does not have what it takes could easily give up on the job, but with the qualities that I possessed, it was easy for me to look on the positive side of the experience and enjoy it. As a matter of fact, all the victims were well treated and dismissed.

Medical Administration

Nurses are mostly given the tasks of giving medicine to the patients, and sometimes they prepare and dispense with the instruction of the doctor in charge. While carrying out these processes, errors may occur and sometimes endanger the life of a patient. Sometimes deaths have happened from the wrong administration of drugs, whether it is the wrong dose given or given at the wrong time. In many cases, deaths are caused by the administration of an overdose done through injections. Another regular case was that of administering that drug to the wrong patient. However, as a professional nurse, wrong administration should not be an issue for you just as long as you are careful, and you pay more attention to details that matter during the administration of drugs. You should be able to administer drugs well to the right person and right dose without any problem.

Critical Care

At the hospital, a lady of 24 years needed a shot of liquid medicine, and I was supposed to prepare and administer it to the patients on entering the patient’s room, I washed my hands with soap and warm water until they were utterly sanitized. Then I reviewed the instructions for the drug to be prepared and administered. Following the instructions given, I prepared the oral medicine at the lab where drugs are prepared.

When the medicine was ready, I went back to the patient’s room administered the proper dose to her after shaking it properly. She went to rest after some time, and when she woke up, she was feeling better. Drugs are supposed to be handled with care at the hospital, especially the ones that need to be prepared at the lab. A professional doctor should be extremely careful when giving drugs to patients because, at times, drugs can be harmful.



Medical surgery is done on a patient if some of their body parts need to be removed and put on to others or to diagnose a certain disease like cancer. Knowledge in pharmacology is essential in surgery since one needs to know which types of medicine to use when performing surgery on different parts of the body of the patient (Norman and Geoffrey 2018). I was once at the theatre performing a biopsy of the breast of a 35-year-old lady to diagnose if she had breast cancer. After putting her down with a shot of Ketamine, I removed a tiny sample of tissue that I knew would contain cells, put it in the microscope, and saw that there were cells that were multiplying unnaturally

Pathophysiology/Medical Surgery

A 65-year-old woman had complications of infections in the streptococcus, generally known as rheumatic fever, and after examination and observation of the patient, I diagnosed that it was caused by her own immunity, which released crazy enzymes that led to degradation of the host tissue. The only way to treat this ailment is by the administration of Neuro drugs to patients with a prescription (Heymsfield, Steven, and Thomas 2017). I gave the old lady Catherine a dose of NSAIDs to use it to relieve her pain as recommended by Katzung, and Bertram (2017) in their book,  Basic and clinical pharmacology (Katzung, and Bertram 2017). Two months later, she had gained more weight and become healthier.



Section B

The patient was administered oral methods of hydration to replace the lost body fluid. I prescribed him with antibiotics, which would help him to reduce the disease infection by half, and with the instruction given on how to hydrate his body, the boy would have to recover. I administered cognitive-behavioural treatment to the patient regularly with a fixed program while focusing on her family and friendship ties. Within two weeks, the symptoms of depression decreased significantly, and she has been showing a lot of positive progress ever since. Since then, Conway has admitted to feeling himself better after examining him, and I found that he is healthy and well. Another situation of medical surgery arose. Naturally, I was supposed to cut out the tissue with these kinds of cells so that the multiplication can stop if it has not spread too much. But it must be with the consent of the patient. After waking up from her reverie, I prescribed a dose of Abiraterone Acetate for her to stop the cells from spreading anymore. After treatment, the patient was carefully given the correct prescription to go and take strictly at home. I evaluated the plan and saw that it was working because the patient came to see me later, and I could tell from her report and my observation that she was doing good.



Heymsfield, S. B., & Wadden, T. A. (2017). Mechanisms, pathophysiology, and management of obesity. New England Journal of Medicine, 376(3), 254-266.

Katzung, B. G. (2017). Basic and clinical pharmacology. McGraw-Hill Education.

McCullough, K. L. (2017). U.S. Patent Application No. 15/165,805.

Norman, G. R., Grierson, L. E., Sherbino, J., Hamstra, S. J., Schmidt, H. G., & Mamede, S. (2018). Expertise in medicine and surgery.