Sample Paper on Should we test on Animals or not?

Most medical breakthroughs were all developed, as well as tested, using animal specimen. Animals are commonly employed recurrently throughout history in the biomedical field. For instance, Greek scientists and medical practitioners such as Erasistratus (304 – 258 BC) and Aristotle (384 – 322 BC) are documented to performing experiments on living animals (Lloyd and Geoffrey 146). Nevertheless, in the recent years, the practice of animal testing in biomedical research has been significantly criticized by various animal rights and protection groups such as World Animal Protection. Notably, discussions regarding the ethics of animal testing have raged for centuries, with Merz-Perezand Kathleen indicating that the issue first surfaced in the seventeenth century and remains a concern to-date (23). Nevertheless, as indicated by Theodore Roosevelt, poor judgment on the matter may be a cause of a crime or lead to folly, which is considered a ‘handmaiden’ of a legal misconduct (Mowry and Theodore 22). Currently, various laws such as the Animal Welfare Act of 1966 have been developed to make the practice of animal testing more ‘humane.’

For centuries, living animals have been used in the biomedical field for experimental purposes and for significant reasons. In 1937, the S. E. Massengill Company, a famous pharmaceutical company in the U.S., accidentally led to the death of more than 100 individuals after they created a preparation called ‘Elixir Sulfanilamide.’ Elixir Sulfanilamide’ was a mixture of sulfanilamide and diethylene glycol (DEG), yet DEG was toxic to human beings (Bennett 45). According to Avorn, a lack of animal trials led to these unfortunate fatalities (136). Consequently, this led to the passing of the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which made animal testing a legal mandate. As a result, vaccines against smallpox and polio were created thanks to animal trials. Additionally, progress in dealing with illnesses such as malaria, hepatitis, Alzheimer’s, as well as HIV/AIDS has been achieved through the help of primate animal test. Subsequently, it can be argued that animal testing and research has contributed significantly to saving lives.

Activist groups against animal testing contend that the aforementioned benefits to humans do not provide a justification in harming animals. From a rational point of view, issues regarding ‘cruelty’ to lab animals, as well as humane treatment of animals, is of great concern. Therefore, the practice of animal experimentation ought to be regulated. As cited by Angell, the best way to find a solution against animal cruelty in the name of medical science can be attained by replacing animals with non-living models, reducing the numbers of animals used, as well as finding refined means of animal testing that significantly reduce pain and cruelty (214). In the current century, the technological advancements made have the capability to conduct humane and effective means of animal trial without compromising on ethics.

The elimination of animal trials in the medical science field will have a noteworthy setback in the development of breakthrough medical treatments. The loss of human life due to an insistent on not using animals for medical trials can be equated to a crime as indicated by Theodore Roosevelt, nevertheless, not adopting new humane ways of doing so does equate to a crime of similar nature.

 

 

Works Cited

Angell, Marcia. Science on trial: the clash of medical evidence and the law in the breast implant case. WW Norton & Company, 1997. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.612.3778&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Avorn, Jerry. “Two centuries of assessing drug risks.” New England Journal of Medicine 367.3 (2012): 193-197. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1206652

Bennett, P. N. “Detecting adverse reactions to drugs.” Human toxicology 7.5 (1988): 465-467. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/096032718800700514

Lloyd, Geoffrey Ernest Richard, and Geoffrey Ernest Richard Lloyd. The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the claims and practice of ancient Greek science. Vol. 52. Univ of California Press, 2009. https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=jaIwDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=Lloyd,+Geoffrey+Ernest+Richard,+and+Geoffrey+Ernest+Richard+Lloyd.+The+Revolutions+of+Wisdom:+Studies+in+the+claims+and+practice+of+ancient+Greek+science&ots=7E6H0-x2k_&sig=sWVeiTqIbHpKQ0rHehV6ApQD1Bc&redir_esc=y

Merz-Perez, Linda, and Kathleen M. Heide. Animal cruelty: Pathway to violence against people. Rowman Altamira, 2004. https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=NZCm0ScOCfAC&oi=fnd&pg=PP11&dq=Merz-Perez,+Linda,+and+Kathleen+M.+Heide.+Animal+cruelty:+Pathway+to+violence+against+people.+&ots=mhVZ9DE2hV&sig=kt9kxrB5c1q7XbOOG_A0SsvlQtw&redir_esc=y

Mowry, George Edwin, and Theodore Roosevelt. “era of Theodore Roosevelt, 1900-1912.” (1958). http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201300576907