The varied types, as well as components of wastes, have become a key environmental issue getting higher attention from government and concerned authorities globally. The attempts to fight the environmental impacts of wastes can be seen in the varied strategies and policies of waste management used by several governments globally. According to federal law 24, 1999, waste refers to both non-hazardous and hazardous remnants and wastes involving nuclear wastes that are to be disposed of and those that are disposed of according to the provisions of the law. Solid waste can be defined as a pool of inorganic and organic solid as well as semi- solid materials that emanate from several industrial and human production activities considered to be unwanted or useless.
Because of the rapid development of the Abu Dhabi Emirate and the rise in population in the city, there is a dramatic increase in the waste generated in the Emirate. Consequently, the Abu Dhabi government established local law No.21, 2005 concerning the waste management system. After the enactment of this law, there was a strong necessity to establish a strong need to create a proficient authority accountable for managing and enhancing waste in Abu Dhabi through the(4R) concept. This led to the establishment of the Abu Dhabi Centre of Waste Management CWM) – Abu Dhabi in 2008 according to local law no. 17. The Center of Waste Management in Abu Dhabi defines waste as all items that are no longer useful, which are either supposed to be disposed of or have already been disposed of. Waste management can be defined as the process of collecting, transporting, processing, managing, and controlling waste products. Conversely, Highest Corporation for Specialized Economic Zones (Zonescorp) is accountable for managing commercial and industrial zones and making that the producers are managing their industrial zones within the region. Both CWM and zonescorp work under the umbrella of Environment Agency-Abu Dhabi.
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It is unquestionably true that both domestic and industrial activities will inevitably result in the generation of wastes. The waste materials are usually in the form of either liquids, gaseous, or solids. It is the buildup of these wastes that result in negative impacts on human health and the environment. Bearing in mind that the generation of waste is an inevitable characteristic of human activities, it is significant for the authorities to establish and institute measures that can effectively manage solid wastes. In fact, with the increase in the rate of urbanization, the management of wastes in urban areas has become a key challenge to the local authorities.
Solid waste is produced in varied environments and differs in terms of its constituents in nature. The commonly recognized sources of solid waste are residential places, institutions, commercial activities, and municipal services. Solid waste is manifested in types of domestic waste, sanitary wastes, sanitary wastes, and other wastes collected from streets and other areas of interest where wastes are collected.
According to Shirke (2009) wastes are classified under the following categories:
- Recyclable wastes involve bottles, broken glasses, cardboard wastes, Aluminum, and Iron wastes.
- Biodegradable wastes that entail parts of withered plants and leaves, waste paper, and food remains.
- Inert waste involves dirt and rock particles and debris from damaged buildings.
- Composite wastes involve pieces of clothes, packaging material, and children’s toys.
- Toxic and domestic hazardous wastes comprise electric light bulbs, fertilizers, discarded medicines, insecticides, and battery containers.
There are various categories of solid wastes produced from varied sources and collected either in bins, containers, or temporary lots like:
- Domestic and municipal waste that include solid waste produced from the house, apartments, residential areas, labor camps, villas, grass clipping, street sweepings.
- Industrial waste is made up of solid waste generated from industrial processes and it entails valuable recyclables. The type of waste produced is based on the kind of the firm. Medical waste includes solid waste produced from human tissues and contaminated needles.
- Construction and development waste. This refers to solid waste produced from construction and demolition activities like steel, wood, concrete, and reinforcement.
- Agricultural waste entails solid waste produced from agricultural activities like branches and leaves of various trees and landscaping wastes.
The Research Topic Importance
Studies indicate that the generation of solid waste and management procedures has developed according to human development in the previous few decades. An increase in the evolution of production methods results in an increase in the process of solid waste management and evolution. International solid waste production has been on a fast rise for the previous decades, and this can be accredited to the exponential growth of the population (Barrionuevo et al., 2012). Approximately 50% of the world’s population put up in urban areas and in cities; this is anticipated to increase to 75% by 2016. Solid waste management typically results in harmful impacts to both human beings and the environment. They are these negative impacts that contribute to the accumulation of wastes in the environment that demands proper waste management practices. This contributes to an increase in challenges in waste management like lack of funds, inadequately skilled labor, limited tools and equipment, and transportation vehicles. Just like any other city across the globe, Abu Dhabi experiences similar challenges of solid waste management.
Because of the significance of efficient solid waste management, CWM focuses on giving policy direction, analysis of the waste management system, and controlling service and contractual requirements in managing wastes. Generally, CWM is accountable for solid waste planning, giving licenses, and authorizing solid waste management practices. The body is also responsible for gathering and managing information, managing contracts, establishing waste policies, regulations, and guidelines(Centre of Waste Management, 2012). Furthermore, the body is accountable for setting standards for managing waste practices when it comes to competencies and technologies used. The center aids communication and involvement of all interested parties in the entire process of waste management in the Emirate. In summary, it is evident that the government of Abu Dhabi understands the need for an efficient and strategic solid waste management system in the Emirate.
It also knows that cooperation and partnerships between several stakeholders are a prerequisite to understanding the vision for Emirates. Consequently, it is vital to evaluate the present solid waste management system which is under the management of CMW, and evaluate the adequacy of the present infrastructure to address all solid waste produced every year in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. The results of this evaluation will result in proposing resolutions and recommendations depending on the best global practices in order to improve the present solid waste management system.
According to the Statistical Center in Abu Dhabi, the numerous wastes in their varied forms have resulted in a key environmental concern for Emirates, hence attracting countrywide attention. Additionally, the Statistical Center for Abu Dhabi indicates that the government of Abu Dhabi recognizes the significance of waste management strategies in the Emirate (Centre of Waste Management, 2012).In demonstrating its commitment, the government formed the Center of Waste Management to direct policies in Emirates.
The Research Aims and Objectives
The main objective of this research paper is to review and evaluate solid waste management in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. This research will be centered on the process of the production of waste materials, gathering, transportation, treatment, and disposal. To assess the present system of solid waste management in the Emirate, a survey will be carried out to gather primary and secondary data about the followings:
- The procedure of managing solid waste in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi
- The quantity of solid waste produced every year in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and operational activities of managing solid waste infrastructure for every stage of the process.
- The environmental effects of the present solid waste management process.
After collecting the necessary information, the research will analyze and find out if the present operational capacity of every stage in the process accommodates the yearly produced solid waste or not. Based on this analysis, the research will recommend extra stages or new initiatives that have been introduced by the government of Abu Dhabi so that it can improve the adequacy and handling performance of the present solid waste management in the Emirate.
This research would require the use of a qualitative research method because only small sample sizes of the solid wastes are required. Additionally, this method of research will be preferred because it majorly deals with understanding and interpreting. This implies that the major activity will be to understand collected data and interpret it. This method will also enable us to use various methods to find out results in my study hence making it a suitable method of collecting information. When it comes to the qualitative research method, it is participation based and therefore, many people will take part in research and this will enable researchers to collect more information. It will also enable us to collect information in the minimal time possible because we will only be required to collect small sample sizes, even though the use of interviewing can consume a lot of time. We also prefer the qualitative research method because it aims at developing an understanding through a wide description. This implies that we would be in a position to have a detailed description of our research.
Pretasking can be described as the use of various emotional and inventive exercises to prepare partakers for a group or individual interview. I also consider pre-tasking because we are interested in collecting information from the participants. Most of the mental and creative exercises require that the participant should be in a position to understand his ideas and the thought processes on the ground. This implies that pre-tasking will enable participants in collecting the preferred information from the field. We would also prefer pre-tasking because it involves various activities, for instance, drawing pictures, keeping diaries, utilizing products at home among others.
There is no change in the research questions because this is the main objective of my topic of study solid waste management system in the Abu Dhabi Emirates.
Shirke, A. (2009). Municipal Solid Waste Management. Environmental Information Centre Newsletter.
Barrionuevo, J. M., Berrone, P., & Ricart, a. J.(2012). Opportunities for Urban Development: Smart Cities Sustainable Development,IESAinsight: Third Quarter, Issue 14, pp 2-6.
Centre of Waste Management (CWM). (2012).Solid Waste Strategy for Abu Dhabi Emirate, CWM, Abu Dhabi, UAE.