Sample Philosophy Paper on Sigmund Freud and the Study of Human Behavior

He is an Australian neurologist who first saw the light in 1856.He founded psychoanalysis which was a clinical way of treating psychopathology through conversation by the patient and the psychoanalyst. Born of Jewish parents of the Freiberg, He studied medicine from the University of Vienna and qualified as a doctor in 1881.He became an associated professor upon completion of his docent in neuropathology. Freud established his clinical practice in Vienna where he resided. He later escaped the Nazis after they raided his house and burned his books, detained and arrested his daughter. With the help of his friend, he flew to Paris and later to London where he suffered an inoperable mouth cancer that made him to request his doctor Schur, to inject him with a heavy morphine dose which made him sleep and never to wake up again.

The father of psychoanalysis, was also a chain smoker who lit his first cigarettes in the age of twenties. His daily movement always involved several stopovers in the vendors and after advancing to cigars, he smoke 20 on a daily basis. He was a strong believer in tobacco in boosting his productivity and creativity. Due to this heavy smoking, Freud developed cancer in his mouth and underwent several surgeries but never quitted smoking. In his field, Sigmund once thought that cocaine was a miracle drug after experimenting he found out that his digestion improved after drinking water mixed with cocaine, it also improved his spirit, Based on the narrative he distributed it to his friends and future wife, but a situation happened when his closest friend became an addict of cocaine, this made him to go slow and started using the drug for depression.

Sigmund had become famous, he was named ‘greatest love specialist in the world’ by a movie producer who offered $100,000 for him to write or even consult about the movie ‘greatest love story of history’. He turned down the offer and took a lower one. His book, ‘interpretation of dreams’ which he considered his most significant work sold few copies and there was no second copy published. In his practice, he employed hypnotism by making his patients recline on a couch given by his patient while he took notes in a desk out of sight. This was famously known as talking cure.

Human behavior

Psychoanalysis is termed as a theory that expounds human actions and the ways of curing intellectual illness. This great doctor had a strong believe that events in childhood will have a great impact on adulthood in shaping someone’s personality. For instance anxiety encountered in the past due to traumatic experience is hidden from consciousness and may manifest during adulthood. In essence when someone explains his behavior to himself or others, He actually rarely gives an accurate account of his motivation. It’s not because he is deliberately lying, while people lie to others, they are even more deceivers of themselves.

Freud’s ventured in unearthing the ways of discovering the elaborate camouflage that hides behind the structure and personality process. His wordlist has become more useful amongst the western community. The words he came up with, through his theories are now widely used by everyone in the medicine field. The words include: denial, cathartic, Freudian slip, libido, neurotic and anal.

A case of patient.

The case of this patient (Bertha) marked the peak of the career of these young neuropathologist of Vienna and extended its influence to the direction of psychology as whole. The patient (Bartha) showed exhibition of physical symptoms (i.e. hallucination, convulsions, loss of speech and paralysis) without an immediate cause. She was treated by Freud’s doctor who helped her recall all the overlooked memories of disturbing events. In their discussion with Bartha, The development of fear was noticed in the patient when she knew that the dog she despised drunk using her cup. (A case of hysteria, 2013, 32).Other serious symptoms came up when she was caring for her sick dad. She was unable to express her anxiety in her sickness but did it later throughout psychoanalysis .When she started making conscious thoughts, her paralysis disappeared. The doctor discussed this idea with Freud and he took it on to pursue and study it for the rest of his life. Where he proposed that physical symptoms are just surface expressions of internal inhibited conflicts. He was not offering an explanation of a particular disease, little was known that he was discovering a theory of human psyche itself.

Unconscious mind.

In the 19c mind model was born where Freud extensively explained various components of thoughts with their functions through use of the analogy of the iceberg to display the stages related to the mind. He started with Consciousness: which is the thoughts that are on our emphasis now, naming it the tip of the iceberg. The second is the preconscious which entailed all that can be recovered from the memory. The last was the unconscious which is the basic desires and impulses kept and mediated by the preconscious area.

In his progressive research ,Freud found out that some of his patients past experience were very painful and frightening for them to accept, he believed that such information was kept in the unconscious mind and the process of repression can make this happen. He emphasized in the significance of the unconscious mind and his theory named after him, asserts that insensible attention oversees actions to a higher height than persons believe, pointing out that the goal and sole aim of the psychoanalysis is making the unconscious conscious.

Later on, Freud developed a more elaborate mind structure consisting of the Id, which he named instincts, Ego which called reality and Superego which is morality This are the three important parts of human personality. (The ego and the id., 2018, 65)I his assumptions, the id operates from the unconscious level due to pleasure principle. , He divides the id into two: Life instinct which aids a person to survive and directs the activities of life like eating, respiration and sex. The energy created here is known as libido. The set of destructive forces seen in human beings are called death instincts, such is displayed as friendliness and fierceness .He assumed that life instinct is tougher than death instinct thus permitting individuals to live rather than self-destruct.

During early stages, an ego whose aim is fulfilling the strains of an id in a secure plus suitable way develops. By thriving mutually in sensible and comatose mind and follows reality. Development of superego happens in childhood its responsibility is to operate under morality principle, it guides people to conduct our self in a positive and responsible way. It makes someone feel guilty if norms are not followed, while ego uses some defense mechanism to prevent it from becoming overwhelmed by the anxiety.

In psychosexual stages, Freud sort to understand why women were forced to repress their sexual wants by retracting the sexual history of his client. He ventured on knowing the patient experience on shame, hate, guilty love and fear. In his theory of psychosexual development, he believes that children are born with libido which is a sexual urge. This the summary of his theory. Ego is perceived to develop in the mouth while sucking and swallowing, also it’s seen in the anus by the ability of the anus to withhold or expel faeces which he calls anal. He goes on to expound how superego manifests itself on phallic where the penis and clitoris are capable of masturbation and in the stage of latent, there is no sexual actions. Lastly he talks about genitals whose functions clearly comes out as sexual intercourse. To be healthy psychologically, one must complete each stage named above.

Dream Analysis Theory

Freud experienced his own dream on line of duty which was later to form the basis of his theory. He had a patient who was not responding well according to his hopes, He infant blamed himself for this and was continuously feeling guilty. On that fateful night, Freud dreamed that he had met his patient in party and did an examination on her. He saw a chemical formula that another doctors had used and realized that his patient’s condition was caused by the use of a dirty syringe by the other doctor. He was relieved of his guilty .In his interpretation of this dream, he called it wish fulfilling because he had wished that his patient continued illness was not his fault, and the dream had come to pass by informing him that it was another doctor who was at fault.

Based on this dream Freud went ahead and proposed that the major functions of dreams was to fulfill wishes. He brings in Dream work, which is the process of translating a wish into a manifest content, whose purpose is to change the forbidden wish into a nonthreatening in order to reduce anxiety and allow us to remain sleeping. (The interpretation of dreams,2013,20-28). He divides dream work into three.

Condensation which is the process of joining two ideas into one, For instance a dream about a house may be a combination of fear of security .Whereas displacement is the transformation of an object or a person we are concerned about to something else. For example the case of Freud’s patient dreaming of Freud’s sister in-law as a white dog. Later on he discovered the existence of a universal simple in dreams where some of them were sexual where he sees guns poles and sword as representing the penis and the dancing or even riding of the horse representing sexual intercourse. He however argues that symbols are more personal and not universal. Lastly, in his line of duty, he came across a patient who dreamed about holding a wriggling fish, the patient told him that was his symbol and it must be a penis. After his further exploration Freud discovered that the patient dream was about her mother who was an astrologer who was against her daughter being analysis. He concluded that the fish represented the patient’s mother rather than a penis.

In conclusion, Freud, studies human behavior and sexuality through his theories has explained. He goes on to show how human behaves and the age at which the sexual urge begins .In his dreams, he guarantees the power of wish fulfillment and the use of symbols in dream. He had the capability of interpreting other people’s dream as he did to his own patient.






Work cited

Freud, Sigmund, and James Ed Strachey. “The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud.” (1964).

Freud, Sigmund. The interpretation of dreams. Read Books Ltd, 2013.

Freud, Sigmund. The ego and the id. Courier Dover Publications, 2018.

Freud, Sigmund. “Three essays on the theory of sexuality (1905).” Standard edition 7 (1953): 1953-74.

Freud, Sigmund. “A case of hysteria.” (2013).

Freud, 10. “10 Things You May Not Know About Sigmund Freud.” N.p., 2018. Web. 30 Apr. 2018.

“Sigmund Freud’s Theories | Simply Psychology.” N.p., 2018. Web. 30 Apr. 2018.