Sample Political Science Paper on Political and Economic Philosophy

Socialism

Socialism is a socio-economic system in which the means of production and distribution of wealth are controlled by workers, directly through the worker’s council, or indirectly through the State on people’s behalf. The doctrine aims at promoting egalitarianism, at the community level. Thus, discrimination and exploitation is unheard of. Allocation of resources by governmental socialists, through a central plan, is based on the individual needs as well as the communal social needs like healthcare, education, and transportation.

Socialism Characteristics

Socialism is a doctrine characterized by communal ownership of means of production, and egalitarianism. Means of production is owned by everyone; community, state, and the workers (Philosophy, 2019).  Socialism is egalitarian as it equally allows each member of the community to access healthcare and education. There is no discrimination against those who cannot work like the elderly and the children; they all access basic needs equally for the benefit of the entire society.

History

Socialism is a socio-economic doctrine that was embraced in the 18th century. The doctrine was a result of protests against extreme capitalism by the French and Britain socialists (Philosophy, 2019). In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, social critics condemned the extreme levels of poverty and inequality in property allocation. The socialists advocated for reforms, whereby wealth was to be distributed equally among the utopian communities formed during that era. The first International forum was formed in 1864, which enabled the sanctioning of socialists’ philosophies (Philosophy, 2019). The second international forum was formed in 1889 by Marx and Entels. Following the First World War, philosophy illustrates that the second international forum was dissolved, leading to the establishment of the third International in 1919. There was a state involvement to oversee contributions and shares.

Political Thinkers Representatives of the Doctrine

According to Philosophy, 2019, political thinkers like Robert Owen, Charles Fourier, Pierre-Joseph, and Louis Blanc, argued that private property contributed to poverty and inequality among members of the community. The political thinkers pressed for adoption of socialism, through formation of utopian communities in the society, for equal distribution of wealth among members. John Maynard Keynes, advocated for government involvement in the market economy.

Impacts of Socialism in the World

Many countries have been negatively affected by socialism, economically. For instance, Israel, India, and United Kingdom, failed to sustain their ever-growing population due to increased rates of unemployment, as well as competition from other countries (Edwards, 2019). After a continuous economic decline, the three countries opted to free market and capitalism.

 

References

Philosophy (2019). The Basics of Philosophy: Socialism. Philosophy. Retrieved from https://www/philosophybasics.com/branch_socialism.html

Edwards, L. (20 Oct. 2019). WKD: These 3 Countries tried Socialism. Here’s what happened. The National Interest. Retrieved from https://nationalinterest.org/blog/buzz/wkd-these-3-countries-tried-socialism-heres-what-happened-89046