Sample Political Science Paper on Socialism

Socialism is a political and economic system whereby the means of production, distribution, and exchange of goods and services, is equally controlled and owned by workers, through the worker’s council or the State. Ownership of property and the distribution of wealth is attained by a constitutionally elected administration. Allocation of resources by socialists, through a central plan, is based on the individual needs as well as the communal social needs like healthcare, education, and transportation.

Socialism characteristics

Socialism is a doctrine characterized by, communal ownership of factors of production, a central plan, and egalitarianism. Firstly, all factors of production are owned by everyone, and the profits are shared according to individual’s contribution. The ownership of factors of production cushions workers from exploitation. Secondly, a central plan is used in the allocation of resources to the community workers, by the socialists. The government socialists are responsible in overseeing contributions and allocating resources accordingly. Lastly, socialism is egalitarian in that it equally allows each member of the community to access healthcare and education. There is no discrimination against those who cannot work like the elderly and the children; they all access basic needs equally for the benefit of the entire society.

History

Socialism is a socio-economic doctrine that was embraced since the 18th century. The doctrine was as a result of protests against extreme capitalism, by the French and Britain socialists (Philosophy, 2019). In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the social critics condemned the extreme levels of poverty and inequality in property allocation. The socialists advocated for reforms, whereby wealth was to be distributed equally among the utopian communities formed during that era.  In 1864, International Workingmen’s Association (IWA), was formed in London, being the first international forum for the endorsement of socialists ideas (Philosophy, 2019). The second International was formed in the year 1889 by Marx and Entels. Following the First World War, Philosophy illustrates that the second International was dissolved, leading to establishment of the third International in 1919. There was a state involvement to oversee contributions and shares.

Political Thinkers representatives of the doctrine

Socialists argue that socialism increases efficiency and economic growth of a particular society, compared to other doctrines. They further claim that socialism is a public monopoly, which is better than private monopoly. In addition, the approach of socialists mitigates the role of externalities in pricing.

Impacts of Socialism in the World

Globally, countries practicing socialism have enabled workers to receive their fair shares, according to their contributions towards production. The elderly and children, equally access the basic needs, although they do not contribute towards production. This cooperative system has eliminated poverty to some extent since there is no discrimination in allocation of public resources.

 

References

Philosophy, (2019). The Basics of Philosophy:  introduction, History of Feminism, Types of Feminism. Philosophy. Retrieved from https://www/philosophybasics.com/branch_feminism.html