Sample Reflective Papers

Reflective Papers

A biographical approach to researching leadership and entrepreneurship development processes in a small business context

Summary of the Study

In the business sector, Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) have experienced great growth. Such growth can be attributed to interaction of different kinds of factors that accelerate performance of SMEs. Entrepreneurial and leadership skills are the leading factors that have contributed to intensive growth of SMEs in the business world. The purpose of this research is to develop strategies of researching processes of entrepreneurial learning as well as leadership in small businesses. The article also suggests study of bibliographical information as the best manner to understand leadership qualities of individuals. The article authors argue biographical research can only be the only feasible manner of researching on leadership and the role it plays in the development of small business. It is however difficult to collect biographical data from the field, as such, it uses past documented data. It is ideal to note the study of past biographical information is of great importance as it aids in bringing to light issues shaping individual experience (Jones, 2011).

Summary of the Recommendation and Methodology

Both qualitative and quantitative approaches to research are applied in the study. Also, the study uses stratified technique of selecting samples from LEAD Wales program (population). However, the participant role in a business was an inclusion factor in the study (Jones, 2011). The researchers as well used biographical narrative interview techniques in order to gather data from the participants. Analysis of data in the study involved different actions and process that involve analysis of biographical narrative of the individual. Among the recommendations from the study is businesses must understand leadership role in the success of any enterprise. Hence, it is crucial to research the qualities of a good leader by use of biographical research technique. Understanding diversities and the characteristics of leaders will aid business organizations in attainment of their goals and objectives.

Principles for Conducting Critical Realist Case Study Research in Information Systems

Summary of the study

The focus of the idea is the notion of critical realisms that is a philosophical tool that is used in conducting social sciences research. Critical realism research, is of subjective nature, though it also takes into consideration presence of variables that are independent which help in the establishment of explanations as well as relationships. The study states there is critical realism which permits researchers to test assumptions that are philosophical with actual information system research, through use of positivism and interpretivism tools. Positivism involves testing the theories of generalization while interpretivism attempts to establish understanding of any given phenomenon. According to the study, scientific research involves application of different philosophy branches (Wynn & Williams, 2012). It involves the assessment and building of existing knowledge (epistemology), tests assumptions with reality of nature (ontology) and it outlines procedure of knowledge creation (Methodology). Consequently, critical realism forms the ideal basis of conducting scientific research especially in social sciences, for example, economics.

Summary of the Methodology

Classifying whether critical realism approach adopts quantitative or qualitative approach to research is very hard. This is attributed to the fact research involves different theories and concepts. For example, triangulation techniques of data collection and analysis find relevance while dealing with critical research realism. This form of research collects data through use of combined sources on the researcher’s inclination (Wynn & Williams, 2012). Studying of cases provided the basis under which it is possible for research to thrive. As such, the research qualifies to be multi-technique research. Case studies are primary designs of research and any critical realism research involves social sciences. Researchers are supposed to use this kind research to conduct surveys on social sciences, such as the role of information systems among human beings. Researchers are also supposed to understand diversity of case study research under critical realism. The study is supposed to take different forms in accordance to nature of project and it does not follow through with any specific procedure.

Exploring the Fit perspective: An ethnographic approach

Summary of the Study

The fit concept has greatly influenced organizations and theorists who pursue HRM in organizations. The major aim of the study is investigating the fit concept through an analysis of different factors that affect HRM in organizations. The study as well adopts an approach of case study that helps in identifying different issues that affect HRM in organizations. The study as well found a misalignment of HR practices that have great impact on the spirit and morale of employees in an organization. It reduces motivation levels among the employees leading to poor performance. In the same manner, adopting HR policies without any consideration for the fit concept affects strategic HRM in an organization. Fit perspective has replaced concept of best practices that has continually increased costs in organization (Singh & Samnani, 2013). The study made the conclusion understanding fit perspective makes it possible for organizations to respond to changes seen in the environment in an effective manner.

Summary of Methodology

Oftentimes, research on issues of human resource adopt qualitative approach as a result of the nature of the subject.Proofreading-Editing The present study, however, suggested ethnographic approach to research involving introspection of case studies on companies. The study as well used ethnographic approach for purposes of testing applicability and viability of some weights that are attached by qualitative technique by using data from case studies. The approach used in the case study is useful since it makes it possible for the researcher to determine the natural and actual state of affairs regarding the issue or subject that is been investigated (Singh & Samnani, 2013). Data comparison from varying sources forms analysis basis regarding this kind of qualitative research. Organizations are supposed to invest in ethnographic research in order to develop solutions to different issues of HR that affect them. This is attributed to the success of any organization in direct relationship with human resource aspect of the organization.

Revisiting the relation between contingency awareness and attention: Evaluative conditioning relies on a contingency focus

Summary of the Study

Conducting observations and experiments has been affected by evaluative conditioning because of conditioning. The study shows experiments are now taking formats that are more generalized than narrowing down to a specific focus. As such, the study seeks to establish role of focus in conditioned stimuli. Evaluative conditioning means changes in interpretation of stimulus that is triggered by affective stimulus. The study makes the conclusion that differences in evaluative conditioning aspects of the individuals is dependent on contingency awareness, which is not always focused on relating stimuli. The study as well makes the conclusion that differences in stimuli, relating to evaluative conditioning contribute to acquisition of contingency awareness. Contingency distractions that are involved in diversion of attention from stimuli, which messed the contingency focus (Kattner, 2012). The study as well tested whether attention is a necessary state for evaluative conditioning to take place.

Summary of the Methodology

109 participants were involved in the study and they were randomly recruited from different groups which included, contingency-distraction group, full-distraction group and attention enhanced group. The study was undertaken in a computer pool with twenty four participants who simultaneously took place in the experiment. The study as well involved response to different stimuli, for example, ads, which depended on the group the participants came from (Kattner, 2012). The study as well took a quantitative approach of analyzing the data collected by subjecting it to rigorous statistical processes. The data was summarized into sub-headings that depended on the attribute or question under investigation. Psychologists are supposed to adopt this form of research so as to identify the reasons individuals respond differently to similar events. The study, can also be quite useful in explaining why children behave the way they do in the course of development.

Impact of information feedback in continuous combinatorial auctions: An experimental study of economic performance

Summary of the study

Advancement in technology and information technology has led to increase in the possibility of identifying market mechanisms and opportunities for majority of businesses. Additionally, it also helps in making it possible for businesses to allocate resources in an efficient manner through procurement policies that are safe. For example, bidding for combination of goods (combinatorial auctions) has gained relevance amongst businesses which has led to improvement of complementary good trade. The study as well strived to establish solutions to problems of time affecting decision making regarding combinatorial auctions. The concept is yet to attain maturity because of the difficulties faced in making some real decisions when confronted. The study as well sought to establish differences between bids so as to understand the role of information availability in combinatorial auctions. Feedback schemes, according to the study are of great importance since they permit the bidders to take part in combinatorial auctioning at any given time. The study made the conclusion feedbacks have a role to play in the economic productivity and efficiency of combinatorial auctions (Admavicious, Curley & Gupta, 2012).

Summary of Methodology

The study combined different methods and approaches of conducting research. It collected data from laboratory experiments where the bidders competed for property lots that surrounded a lake. Research, also used setups that made it possible to manipulate data they collected from these experiments. The research approach was quantitative and involved application of demanding statistical manipulation of collected data. Additionally, the research was hypothesis based. This is due to the fact it set out to test some of the hypothesis from prior research studies and theoretical assumptions (Adomavicious, Curley & Gupta, 2012). It applies descriptive statistics to come up with conclusions that are viable from data collected. Businesses, especially, dealers of properties and stock exchange experts are supposed to rely in this type of research for purposes of identifying best practices that yield economic benefits.

Ready for battle? A phenomenological study of military simulation systems

Summary of the study

The aim of the study was to establish relevance and applicability of military training through carrying out research on connection between military training and tasks given. Researchers aimed to establish how the officers perceived improvement of their performance, and if the procedures of simulation were in line with their activities. As far as task-technology goes, no research has taken place ever from military training context (Cane, McCarthy & Halawi, 2010). The study therefore concentrated on establishment of whether task-technology exists in military training and application of simulation training. The response on whether there is an improvement in performance has helped the researchers identify whether the experience of military offices is fit between the form of training they undergo and the kind of tasks they face once in the field. The phenomenological approach that is adopted by the research is quite unique and aids in building knowledge regarding training simulation among the military.

Summary of the methodology

To carry out the research, the study followed qualitative approach, which involved identification of experiences of those who had received training through simulation. The interviewing technique of data collected assisted the researcher in collection of data from different participants. Interview questions as well helped in capturing and questing the experiences of military officers who had gone through simulation training (Cane, McCarthy & Halawi, 2010). The interview questions, additionally helped in identification of performance improvements that determine role of simulation and training in daily activities of the military officers. The study as well applied phenomenological approach of analysis in order to establish a connection between different variables brought out in the course of the research. The study is of great importance since it makes it possible for military agencies to assess impact of simulation and training technology on the role of military officers. As such, military as well as other security agencies that train officers through use of simulation technology should adopt this methodology for research for purposes of establishing the value that is created by their training encounters.

A content analysis study of the use of celebrity endorsers in magazine advertising

Summary of the study

Celebrities are used by a large number of magazines to market themselves among people. This study seeks to look at how magazines used celebrity endorsers in advertising. The study aimed to prove information going round in media regarding celebrity endorsers in advertisement of magazines. The study, according to the article found that among 37 magazines that were under scrutiny, only 10 percent involved a celebrity. The figure was far lower than the speculations going on in the media regarding celebrity endorsers in magazine advertisement (Belch & Belch, 2013). The study, however also established use of celebrities in magazine advertising is dependent on the kind of magazine. Celebrity endorses were very high among teen magazines and those dealing with sports. The physical attributes of the celebrities, for example, athletes determined their level of popularity amongst target population.

Summary of the methodology

The study used the approach of content analysis for purposes of gathering data regarding use of celebrity endorsers in magazine advertisement. Among the challenges of the research is that there was no prior research done on the topic, which called for a need to invest in large data analysis and collection. Majority of the estimates that existed were dependent on prevalence of celebrities in commercials that were aired in media. As such, the research aimed to show prevalence of celebrities use in magazine advertising and whether their use varied from one magazine to another, which was the central question of the study. To attain this objective, the research made an analysis of advertisements that appeared in some of the famous magazine circulations by then. Selection was on the basis of circulation figures of a magazine that was published in 2007, April. The ads that were randomly selected in different magazines were then categorized into different groups for ease of analysis (Belch & Belch, 2013). As such, the study adopted qualitative approach to research. Magazines are supposed to follow this kind of methodology and research design in order to assess impact of different advertising efforts and campaigns.

Revisiting the file drawer problem in meta-analysis: An assessment of published and non-published correlation matrices

Summary of the Study

The problem of file drawer is a concept that depends on supposition that non-significant results are unlikely to be used in primary studies as well as meta-analytic reviews. The purpose of the study is to seek to establish extent to which the issue of file drawer is in none-experimental research. The study as well depends on data that is already documented in order to further coverage and interests. Scientific research does not involved development and the identification of new and unique knowledge.  It rather involves buildup of the existing knowledge via various forms of study meant to figure out the solution to a problem. The study as well notes that a single study cannot issue and resolve minor issues. As such, single studies never qualify to be used in meta-analytic reviews because of reliability and applicability challenge (Dalton, 2012).

Summary of the methodology

The study used data that was already published to determine frequency of non-significance statistical correlations included in matrices of correlation. The non-statistical correlations, however, had come from non-experimental research. Secondary data was also used in the study and it came from different journals selected for specific criterion. Random selection of the data sources from different years was the technique of sampling used. The identified correlation matrices study from these journals established the size of matrix and the percentage and number of sizes that were non-significant statistically (Dalton, 2012). The research therefore, adopted quantitative approach, which involved analysis of data already documented. Data analysis involved computation of non-significant statistically correlations between each matrix and the average per journal. The researchers found computed correlation between matrix size and statistically non-significant sizes percentage. It was evident there were positive correlations because of file drawer problem existence.

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Adomavicious, G., Curley, S., & Gupta. (2012). Impact of information feedback in continuous combinatorial auctions: An experimental study of economic performance. MIS Quarrterly, 37 (1): 55-76.

Belch, M., & Belch, G. (2013). A content analysis study of the use of celebrity endorsers in magazine advertising. International Journal of Advertising, 32 (3): 369-389.

Cane, S., McCarthy, R., & Halawi, L. (2010). Ready fof battle? A phenomenological study of military simulation systems. Journal of Computer Information Systems: 33-40.

Dalton, D. (2012). Revisiting the file drawer problem in meta-analysis: An assessment of published and non-published correlation matrices. Personnel Psychology, 65: 221-249.

Jones, K. (2011). A Biographical Approach to Researching Leadership and Entrepreneurship Development Processes in a Small Business Context. Bangor University Business School: United Kingdom, 199-205.

Kattner, F. (2012). Revisiting the relation between contingency awareness and attention: Evaluating conditioning relies on a contingency focus. Cognition and Emotion, 26 (1): 166-175.

Singh, P., & Samnani, A. (2013). Exploring the Fit Perspective: An Ethnographic Approach. Human Resource Management, 52 (1): 123-144.

Wynn, D. & Williams, C. (2012). Principles for Conducting Critical Realist Case Study Research in Information Sytems. MIS Quarterly, 36 (3): 787-810.