Sample Research Paper on Homeless and Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is not an uncommon disease, and it is quite common in environments with
poor air quality. Tuberculosis is a mycobacterium respiratory disease that may be caused by the
poor air quality in the atmosphere where people breathe. The air which they breathe is
contaminated by the mycobacterium, so when it enters into their lungs it leads an infection in the
lungs of those who are exposed. Pulmonary tuberculosis is commonly found in among people
that live in unsanitary living conditions such as the homeless population. This group of people is
the most vulnerable to have lung disease, because of their unhealthy living conditions.
Social Determinants of Health Influencing the Health Issue
Social determinants influencing the rate high rate of tuberculosis in people of Jersey City
include lacking economic and social basic needs. This is a dynamic phenomenon that involves a
variety of causes including lack of schooling, low wages, overpopulation, and unemployment
(Craig et al., 2017). The social determinants and circumstances in which individuals live are
accountable for a significant portion of the health disparities and the heightened risk of TB.
Several reports have suggested a correlation between the per capita GDP and the
prevalence of TB. The addition of other proximal determinants in explanatory variables suggests
that the influence of poverty on TB is the product of multiple factors and mechanisms).
Socioeconomic inequality results in poor housing, overcrowding, and malnutrition, which raises
the chances of TB infection, increase susceptibility to illness, and the likelihood of adverse
health outcomes. The correlation between homelessness and TB has long been recognized and
studies have shown a greater prevalence of TB and a reduced response rate in these patient


groups. Nevertheless, among these individuals, age, HIV co-infection, and drug use are
indicators of ineffective treatment.
Overcrowding has as well been linked with a higher risk of TB exposure in New Jersey.
Living conditions can impact the risk of exposure due to poor ventilation and the condition of
indoor air. Important correlations with overpopulation and notification of TB have been
established. Bad dietary condition is an important risk aspect for tuberculosis. There is a strong
dose-response association between the extent of undernutrition and the likelihood of TB

Proposed innovative solutions

Since tuberculosis is a significant concern in homeless people, the Advisory Council for
the prevention of tuberculosis should establish guidelines to support health care professionals,
emergency facilities, shelter managers and staff, social welfare organizations, and homeless
people in the prevention and management of TB in this community (Gupta et al., 2017). Every
homeless individual with a fever and persistent cough for longer than 2 weeks must be suspected
of developing TB, and suitable diagnostic tests should be performed. Proven or suspected TB
individuals in the homeless community should be identified directly to the department of health
so that a recovery plan can be agreed upon and possibly affected people found and investigated

Potential Partners (Stakeholders)

As a public health nurse leader, the stakeholders that we will join hands in controlling TB
in New Jersey include the National Health Care for the Homeless people who would help in
connecting homeless institutions and TB control approaches (Jackson et al., 2019). We would


also join hands with the Emergency Solutions Grants Program who will offer funds to homeless



Craig, G. M., A. Daftary, N. Engel, S. O’driscoll, and A. Ioannaki. "Tuberculosis stigma as a
social determinant of health: a systematic mapping review of research in low incidence
countries." International Journal of Infectious Diseases 56 (2017): 90-100.
Gupta, V., Sugg, N., Butners, M., Allen-White, G., & Molnar, A. (2015). Tuberculosis among
the homeless—preventing another outbreak through community action. New England
Journal of Medicine, 372(16), 1483-1485.
Jackson, C., Gardy, J. L., Shadiloo, H. C., & Silva, D. S. (2019). Trust and the ethical challenges
in the use of whole genome sequencing for tuberculosis surveillance: a qualitative study
of stakeholder perspectives. BMC medical ethics, 20(1), 43.