Sample Research Paper on Legalization of Abortion

Legalization of Abortion

Proposal Topic

Abortion is a highly contentious issue that has been continually debated throughout history. The debate revolves around whether abortion should be legalized or even permeated as opposed to being prohibited?

Literature Review (summary)

The right to choose to terminate a pregnancy remains a heated debate throughout history. During the Roe vs. Wade case in 1973, seven of the nine judges voted for women to undergo abortion, especially in cases whereby their health was at risk. Nevertheless, this determination was hinged on the right to privacy, as well as an arrangement between the state and the woman. Consequently, different states have dissimilar rights and regulations regarding abortion. For instance, according to a study by Ginsburg (2014), 85% of the U.S. counties are not obliged to attend to abortion as a medical service. Nevertheless, despite these difficulties, thousands of women continue to have legal abortions in the U.S. annually. For example, in 2017, approximately 664,000 legal abortion cases were reported in the U.S. (Martin, Hamilton, & Osterman, 2018). However, this number is dismal compared to the 1990s when millions of legal abortions were conducted (, 2014).

Over the years, due to the lack of proper medical care, as well as the social stigma associated with abortion, a significant number of women have resorted to ‘back-alley abortions’ thus leading to their deaths. Evidently, there is a need to have a clear view of abortion in order to aid in reducing the associated fatalities with regards to sub-standard pregnancy terminations witnessed in the contemporary society.

Need for the Study

Currently, the debate on the legitimacy of abortion involves two factions, namely: pro-life and pro-choice. As explained by Ginsburg (2014), pro-life represents the individuals as well as organizations that are against abortions. On the other hand, the pro-choice believe in the right for a woman to choose whether she wants an abortion for legitimate reasons. Over the last decade, both parties have launched aggressive campaigns for support. The debate  has left many expectant women confused on what choice is right for them. For instance, in 2016, approximately 25,148 abortion cases were reported among teenage girls aged 19 years and an additional 6,068 cases among girls aged 16 to 12 years (Martin, Hamilton, & Osterman, 2018). According to a study by Henshaw (2014), on average, about 75% of underage mothers who decided to keep their pregnancy found it hard to support their families, a factor that compounded their already complicated situation of being teenage mothers. Ginsburg (2014) argues that a significant number of teenagers who chose to procure an abortion  suffer from guilt and depression. This study dissects the pro-life and pro-choice debate giving concrete answers on whether abortion should be legalized, and if so, under what directions.


The study will adopt a secondary research methodology in collecting quantitative data that will be analyzed using The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) technique.

Research Questions

This research will be guided by three questions that will give the researcher, as well as the audience, the ability to come up with a conclusion. The questions include;

  1. What are the dangers (social, medical, as well as psychological) of terminating a pregnancy?
  2. What are the other viable options that may be adopted instead of pregnancy terminations; for instance, is giving a child away for adoption better than abortion?
  3. What are the consequences of not having an abortion, particularly in cases such as rape?

Research Design

The nature of the topic (quasi-experimental) dictates that secondary sources provide the best data for this study, with the quantitative research methodology being the most preferable.

Study Measurements

By using SPSS, a cost analysis split between long-term as well as short-term costs and benefits will be used to give an unequivocal answer to the objective of the study.

Limitations of the Study

The major limitation expected in this study is that some data sources are expected to be biased. The pro-life material may support other options such as child adoption while others may view pregnancy termination as a viable option, particularly in cases of teenage pregnancy because the fetus may be compromised.


Ginsburg, F. D. (2014). Contested lives: The abortion debate in an American community. Univ of California Press.

Henshaw, S. K. (2014). US teenage pregnancy statistics with comparative statistics for women aged 20-24. Readingson Teenagers and Sex Education32(5), 293.

Martin, J. A., Hamilton, B. E., & Osterman, M. J. (2018). Births in the United States, 2017. (2014). Number of legal abortions reported in the U.S. from 1973 to 2014 (in 1,000). Internet source retrieved from