Positive Effects of Incarceration on Detainees
The paper will offer a comprehensive analysis of the positive effects of incarceration on detainees as well as how to improve their lives. The period of imprisonment has some effects on the inmates and their families. After release, the individuals have access to the social security benefits. Some of the social security benefits available to the persons after incarceration include the retirements and disability benefits. In addition, some of the older persons have access to the supplemental security income benefits (Petersilia and Kevin 78). The amendment of the Employment and income support acts also provided that the detainers after incarceration would receive some special considerations offering job opportunities. As a result, the report would offer a detailed analysis of how incarceration causes positive effects on the lives of the detainees even after release.
In most of occasions, offenders who are release from jail term may reoffend after their release to the community. This is commonly known as recidivism. However, incarceration has been to reduce the number of offenders reoffending. During the incarceration period, the inmates are educated well discouraging them from reoffending. For instance, they are made aware of the penalties associated with reoffending. The level of crimes is influenced by various factors including reoffending from released offenders. Incarceration has been able to discourage the rates of recidivism among the convicted offenders. This encourages the offenders to move on with their lives after their jail terms. It is usually difficult for inmates to connect their lives after coming from the jail. Thus, the correctional officers have programs that offer guidance and counseling to the offenders. Incarceration lowers the risks of recidivism by causing emotional response to the offenders such as guilt and anxiety. The emotional responses are aimed at discouraging further offences. The accumulation of incarceration leads to four types of reactions from the offenders (Clark, Sarup and Brandon 512). These includes estimating the chance of punishing new crimes, increased difficulty of coping with and accepting imprisonment, increased awareness of the weight of previous convictions and increased fear of punishment. The experience of punishment accumulates and thus, ends up gradually reducing the desire for criminals to continue with their criminal activities. The rehabilitation model indicates that the physical and social aspects endured during incarceration often discourage offenders from conducting further crimes. Therefore, the time served at the incarceration has proven to be beneficial in reducing the rate of recidivism among the offenders.
Based on psychological research and understanding, incarceration promotes positive emotions in the inmates. The prisons have been helpful in promoting prison adjustment and well-being. The process of adjustments helped in managing and coping to the life challenges and demands. The prison environment usually influences the extent of inmate adjustments. Offenders with a history of lack of control due to personal inadequacy usually benefits from the incarceration period. The period seeks to deal with the resentful and depression feelings by the individuals. Research studies indicate that incarceration helps to nurture positive emotions (Petersilia and Kevin 178). Considering the abundance of negative feelings of the offenders, incarceration gives the offenders an opportunity to experience positive emotions. For instance, dealing with mental health demands of inmates offers a possible experience of developing positive outcomes. Many researchers have demonstrated the power of prison climate in developing and shaping the behavior of inmates.
Most important, many correctional facilities have sought to implement successful positive intervention programs for all inmates. The programs are aimed at teaching the students better curriculum towards promoting their understanding and utilization of intelligence and other significant life skills. Thus, they are able to resolve their problems easily. Thus, most of programs developed in the correctional facilitate have been important in creating conducive environment for reformation and rehabilitation of the prisoners (Lambie and Isabel 450). Even thought the psychological troubles of inmates have ignored for years, today, the prison systems and processes have improved in dealing with the current struggles of the inmates. The individual centered programs are crucial in creating positive emotions of the offenders. In a psychological context, incarceration has a played a crucial role in improving rational decision making among offenders.
During incarceration, the prisoners have access to vocational training that offers improve their job outlook. The inmates receive general educational and training that helps them to engage in formal employment after completing their jail terms. Reports indicate that inmates who received educational and training during the jail terms are likely to pursue job opportunities (Aizer and Doyle 34). This improves their future lives making them responsible person in the community. The prison education programs are cost effective, as they only requires minimal investment. In addition, there are strong evidence revealing that correctional educational and training has reduced the rates of recidivism. It was suggested that inmates engaged in educational programs had a 43 percent lower percentage of training efforts to the prisons compared to the prisoners who did not have access to educational training. Even after release, the prisoners who received education had a 13 per cent change higher of getting to employment compared to who with no vocational educational training programs.
However, the findings emphasized that the education programs are likely to improve the future job achievements of the inmates. The education programs in the correctional facilitates prepares the inmates on how adapt to the society after release. Based on the achievement scores of the education programs, it was found out that they improved the labor force participation of the detainees. Especially, the computer-assisted institutions exposed the detainees to technology promoting self-learning at lower costs (Clark, Sarup and Brandon 520). The use of technology improved math and successful reading among the inmates.
Most important, all prisons have been protected by the international standards forcing the U.S government to improve situation of the prisons. This has helped in providing comprehensive assessment and dignity of the operations of the detention facilities. Thus, the prison facilities are useful in developing the detainees in order law-abiding citizens. The training programs expose the detainees to the penalties associated with wrongdoing and assistance measures for all victims (Petersilia and Kevin 108). The detainees obtain a clear picture of adherence to the laws and regulations in the society reducing their probability of engaging in crimes. Generally, incarceration offered training and academic opportunities to most of the detainees and thus improving their chances of getting into employment.
Moreover, all detainees benefited from Medicaid health programs provided by the government. The programs are aimed at providing medical assistance to the inmates during their incarceration period. For instance, it advances mental health and substance abuse control approaches for all detainees. The state and federal policies provides that the inmates could still enjoy the benefits of the Medicaid programs even after the incarceration period. After completing the jail terms, individuals are only required to reapply and within two months, they can access to the benefit of the medical programs (Lambie and Isabel 451). This follows that most of imamates after completing their jail term are not able to meet their basic needs or event emergency health care. Thus, the Medicaid benefits helps to offer access to community treatment with the stabilization period. This places the inmates at safe position after their jail terms. The medical assistance benefits ranges from public treatment services to metal health case. The federal and state government incurs all the costs. In some systems, the former inmates are not even required to reapply for the medical programs and treatment services.
Most of detection and correctional facilities are public institution requires to assist the inmates during and after their incarceration. The federal policy states clearly that the inmates are having access to all medical assistance offered by the public institutions even after their incarceration. All detainees undergo careful medical examination to avoid any health concerns during their incarceration. This creates a positive impact of maintaining good health during the incarceration period. For instance, the medical programs could prevent the contraction of diseases. For example, the medical assistance benefits is designed and implemented to link the persons with mental health problems as well as substance use problems to proper medical procedures. The detainees have access to medication information relating to the effects of substance use and the potential ways of avoiding substance abuse.
Recently, the state and federal government has accepted the policy allow extended health benefits converges to the inmates in the custody. The health benefit coverage covers the primary care and behavioral treatment to the detainees. However, there has been pressure from the taxpayers on the reducing the health benefits provided to the inmates. The extended health benefit coverage has enabled the correctional facilities to improve substance health in the correctional facilities. In the past, there were health disparities in the correctional facilities. This led to deterioration of health care awarded to the inmates (Petersilia and Kevin 126). However, the approval of the extended health benefit coverage offers increased health benefits to the inmates. The program is able to meet the physical, mental and social needs to all inmates during the incarceration period. As a result, detainee benefits from medical programs offered during and after the incarceration period by most of state and federal correctional facilities.
An Interview with Arnold Paul of the Michigan Juvenile Detention facility was significant in understanding the positive effects of incarceration to the detainees. The contact information of Arnold Paul, a correctional officer in Michigan Juvenile Detention facility is as follows:
Department of Human Services
235 S Grand Avenue
Lansing, Michigan 480909
During the interview, I asked Mr. Paul the various services and assistance provided to the juvenile detainees. Some of the assistance offered to the detainees included cash, food, childcare, home and burial assistances, and rehabilitation services. Most of the detainees have improved their medical and mental health due to the efficiency of the Michigan Rehabilitation services. The facility holds many detainees with disabilities and thus, the presence of rehabilitation services is instrumental in their recovery and adaptation to new situations. Also, the detainees benefits from child care. In case, the women prisoners gave birth during the incarceration period. Michigan Detention facility has specialized care for the children. This allows the parents to frequently see their children. Based on the information provided, I believe the incarceration offers various benefits to the detainees.
Considering that then U.S prisons have the highest number of juvenile offenders than any other nation. The incarceration programs have been influential in enhancing educational attainment of the young offenders. The programs have also helped in reducing the probability of the offenders committing crimes in their adulthood. Studies have confirmed that incarceration offers a better prospect to the juveniles (Aizer and Doyle 34). Even though, in the short-term incarceration in terms the emotions of the offenders, it has been noted that the long-term effects are beneficial to the offenders. Thus, the costs incurred in the incarceration programs are worthwhile considering the moral change of the most offenders. Incarceration offers the detainees alternative ways of dealing with their conflicts or earning their lives.
In summary, incarceration has provided various positive effects on the detainees as well as improving their future lives after release. For instance, incarceration promotes positive emotions among the detainees. Offenders with a history of lack of control due to personal inadequacy usually benefits from the incarceration period. In addition, incarceration program discourages the rates of recidivism among the convicted offenders. This encourages the offenders to move on with their lives after their jail terms. It is usually difficult for inmates to connect their lives after coming from the jail. All detainees undergo careful medical examination to avoid any health concerns during their incarceration. This creates a positive impact of maintaining good health during the incarceration period. Lastly, the approval of the extended health benefit coverage offers increased health benefits to the inmates.
Aizer, Anna and Doyle, Joseph. What is the long-term impact of incarcerating juveniles? Web. 16 July 2013. VOX CEPR’S Policy Portal. Accessed from <http://www.voxeu.org/article/what-long-term-impact-incarcerating-juveniles>.Accessed on 16 Nov 2014.
Clark, Heather Griller, Sarup R. Mathur, and Brandon Helding. “Transition services for juvenile detainees with disabilities: Findings on recidivism.” Education and Treatment of Children 34.4 (2011): 511-529.
Lambie, Ian, and Isabel Randell. “The impact of incarceration on juvenile offenders.” Clinical psychology review 33.3 (2013): 448-459.
Petersilia, Joan, and Kevin R. Reitz, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Sentencing and Corrections. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.