Sample Social Sciences Essays on Social Welfare

Modern Social Welfare in a Global Context 

Social welfare includes various government programs whose main aims are to protect citizens from the numerous economic risks and vagaries of life. The social welfare programs that are run by most governments globally are rooted in the pursuit of sustainability, which is fundamental in modern social welfare as it prioritizes the economic responsibilities of the government towards its citizens. This perspective is a shift from the ancient government, which focused on the ethical imperatives of the government towards its citizenry. The ethical context of social welfare implies the primary responsibility of the government is meeting the basic needs of its citizens, such as housing, food, clothing, medical care, and education (Ivankina & Latygovskaya, 2015). The ethical context of social welfare is rooted in the social contract concept, which holds that the people are in a contractual relationship with the government, whereby they surrender some of their liberties for protection and safeguarding of their interests by the government.

Modern government practices cannot efficiently financially sustain the ethical approach to social welfare due to their massive structures. Besides, the significant increase in the number of people who are dependent on the government for basic assistance due to population increase makes the system unstainable (Ivankina & Latygovskaya, 2015). Therefore, sustainable social welfare aims at preserving the presently available resources for future generations through their long-term and economical exploitation. Modern sustainable social welfare is focused on resources decentralization to the grassroots to ensure equitable distribution of natural resources and the impacts of socioeconomic and political decision making (Fleurbaey, 2015). Additionally, the decentralization of economic resources provides economic and equal employment opportunities to the underrepresented part of society. According to Chappell (2005), the decentralization of economic resources enables the majority of the citizens to take charge of their economic situations; therefore, reduce their economic dependence on the government.

National Children’s Agenda Analysis

A good national agenda for the children should be focused on the provision of a variety of opportunities that are aimed at ensuring the realization of the potential of the children. According to Albanese & Rauhala (2015), these opportunities should include access to comprehensive and quality healthcare and education among other basic needs. Besides, a good national agenda for children should aim at minimizing the social inequality gap. Children who hail from a low socio-economic class have fewer economic resources to support their education and even healthcare. As such, poverty prevents children from poor backgrounds from accessing life-changing opportunities that may unlock and promote the growth of their potentials (Albanese & Rauhala, 2015). For such children to access the opportunities, they need to succeed. The rate of poverty must be reduced

A good national children’s agenda should inclusion-oriented regardless of the country’s social and political structures. The agenda is imperative in ensuring that children from the less-privileged social and political classes are also provided with opportunities to improve their lives. Additionally, that objective can be achieved through the use of affirmative action programs that are aimed at eliminating discrimination or segregation of children based on their social, political, or economic backgrounds.

The national agenda should ensure that children are well represented politically, and their best interests are safeguarded and protected. The fact that children are barred from voting world-over exposes them to exploitation and exclusion from socioeconomic, political, and fiscal processes (Albanese & Rauhala, 2015). Therefore, the agenda should come up with a way of ensuring that children are well represented in the political and fiscal process of a country as they represent the future of the nation.

Inclusion will be beneficial for the children, more so those hailing from the lower castes of the socioeconomic class. It will provide them with opportunities to develop themselves and equip them with the tools needed for them to take control of their futures.

Alberta Social Policy Framework

The documents emphasize the fundamental role community members play in policy formulation and implementation. They highlight the importance of public participation by community members in the policy formulation process. The Alberta Social Policy Framework, created by the government, together with community members, provides a framework of how government social policies should be formulated and implemented. Besides, it emphasizes the need for citizens to engage in policy formulation to promote the ideals of justice and fairness.

As a citizen, the framework is fundamental because it guarantees my participation in the government’s policy formulation and implementation. Therefore, my interests and desires, together with others can be represented adequately in policy formulation and implementation (Bhargava, 2015). As a social worker, the framework simplifies the process of civic education and awareness creation in the policymaking process. According to Hicks (2008), since most people are ignorant of the policies in place, a collaborative policy formulation and implementation process increase the awareness of social welfare policies that can improve the lives of citizens.

As a social welfare policy analyst, the framework provides a basis for the understanding of the effectiveness of public policies and recommendations for improvements needed to raise the standards of living of the people. Lastly, the framework provides valuable feedback on the efficacy of the policies.

Important Social Movements

Canada’s social movements trace their genesis in the 1930s when associations agitating for liberty and civil rights emerged. The nation, like America, is multicultural, with a variety of races living together in harmony. The minority communities, such as Blacks and Aboriginals, have been agitating for an end to discrimination and equal economic opportunities. The demand for civil liberties was brought to the limelight in the 20th Century by associations, such as the League for Democratic Rights and Canadian Labor Defense League. The associations mobilized like-minded individuals to join in their struggle for civil rights and improvements of labor conditions respectively.

The LGBTQ community emerged from the shadows into the limelight in agitation for the advancement of their civil rights.  This minority community was always in the closet because the mainstream Canadian community was not morally ready to acknowledge their existence and needs (Meyer, 2016). Presently, they are still not considered legitimate members of the community, although their civil rights have been advanced to them. They are still exposed to discrimination and profiling and stigmatization in society. Indeed, the constant violation of their civil rights makes the LGBTQ movement a civil rights issue that should be addressed (Meyer, 2016). The LGBTQ needs to be protected through government policies and regulations.

Social Indicators

The rate of employment in society is one of the social indicators that can be used to evaluate the stability of Canada’s economy and its citizen’s living standards. Countries with high levels of employment experience low poverty levels that frees the government’s spending to be used for development.  According to Hicks (2008), employment as a social indicator is fundamental as it influences household income and capital investment and facilitates social mobility. The creation of employment opportunities is a way of achieving societal sustainability as countries with high unemployment levels face high costs of maintaining its citizens. According to Hicks, 2008, governments need to expand their country’s economic sectors to create job opportunities for qualified citizens.

According to the OECD report on employment of 2017, which analyzed employment levels in America, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Canada, Canada has a high employment rate of 73.3 percent. This places it third behind the United Kingdom and Sweden. Besides, the report held that Canada has one of the highest employee turnover rates among the countries. The high turnover rate in the country can be attributed to the fact that Canada is a multicultural nation where people have different expectations of work hence the numerous shifting of jobs.





Albanese, P., & Rauhala, A. (2015). A decade of disconnection: Childcare policies in changing economic times in the Canadian context. International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies6(2), 252-274. Retrieved from

Bhargava, V. (2015). Engaging citizens and civil society to promote good governance and development effectiveness. Retrieved from

Chappell, A. T. (2005). Learning in action: Training the community policing officer. The University of Florida. Retrieved from

Fleurbaey, M. (2015). On sustainability and social welfare. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management71, 34-53. Retrieved from

Hicks, P. (2008). Social Policy in Canada–Looking Back, Looking Ahead. Looking Ahead (November 1, 2008). Queens University School of Policy Studies, Working Paper, (46). Retrieved from

Ivankina, L., & Latygovskaya, T. (2015). Modern social welfare in the light of the sustainability model. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences166, 111-115. Retrieved from

Meyer, I. H. (2016). The elusive promise of LGBT equality. Retrieved from

OECD. (2017). Employment – Employment rate – OECD Data. Retrieved from