Social institutions are among the most critical components in the modern society because they address some of the most fundamental functions in the community. The presence of these institutions has helped in ensuring that the contemporary community has elaborate systems that help in the planning and coordination of various activities. Moreover, these systems can be differentiated by their functions, impact on human life, and relationship with other organizations. As such, this study will assess an article that examines the distinct types of social systems and the impacts they have on the modern society. Additionally, the study will evaluate the purpose of the article, methodology used, findings, conclusions, and other insights provided by the researcher.
The article “contemporary issues in criminological theory and research: the role of social institutions” by Richard Rosenfeld, Kenna Quinet and crystal Garcia, is a unique study that provides insights on the influence of social institutions on peoples involvement in different activities and how the institutions reduce the rate of crime in the society . The researchers’ notes that individual’s activities and social institutions influence the type of resources used and the efforts applied in achieving a given objective. Moreover, the authors emphasize that family background plays a significant role in determining the social and moral environment of the citizens. On the other hand, schools help in the provision of academic competence and knowledge to the scholars. Consequently, the training and education provided by these institutions help in the cultivation and transmission of specialized skills, abilities, and broadening individual horizons (Heise et al. 165).
In essence, the author defines social institutions as enterprises that aim at satisfying basic social needs through the provision of a different framework that links an individual to the larger cultural structures and reducing any conflict that may exist between different parties in the community (Rosenfeld, Garcia, & Quinet 132). Although the social theory provides various interpretations of social institutions such as the functionalist approaches and neo-institutionalist approaches, understanding the broader context of the influence of social institutions on citizens s’ culture and behavior has created distinct perceptions among different researchers (Rosenfeld, Garcia, & Quinet 131). Some of the social institutions listed by the researcher that define the method of interaction, rules, and teaching to be followed include religion, family, education, and the government. For instance, family helps in the regulation and controlling of a person’s sexual behavior, emotional and economic support, teaching on the primary methods of socialization, and provision of new members of the society.
The aims of the study included the assessment of performance and the role of social institutions in learning activities and how religion impacts criminal activities in the society. Rosenfeld, Garcia, & Quinet involved numerous leaders that helped in achieving some of the specific objectives that included the determination of the level of involvement of religious leaders in such activities, finding the exact influence of social enterprises on scholars’ activities, and identifying roles of community institutions regarding citizens’ activities (Rosenfeld, Garcia, & Quinet 137). The goals of the study help in understanding the different perspectives of their influence on the socialization techniques used by learners in the modern society and how they have promoted the growth in crime rates in the society. Specifically, the researcher aims at understanding the relation between culture, policies, religion and behavior among citizens that are influenced by these institutions.
The methodology of research defines the different dynamics that are used to derive findings and recommendations and validate the hypothesis of a study. Furthermore, it systemizes the investigation and gives direction to the content. As such, the researcher considered the descriptive method to survey the various dynamics that were to be considered. First, Rosenfeld, Garcia, & Quinet developed a questionnaire as the primary instrument to be used in collecting data to assert the level of involvement of citizens’ leaders in the topic under study. Further, the researcher scaled the different responses in the questionnaires to enable an effective verification and classification of the research. Moreover, this method of data collection enabled the researcher to interact with the respondents during the distribution and collection of the materials. Also, Rosenfeld, Garcia, & Quinet used purposive sampling in collecting the population that was employed in the study, which comprised of 154 citizens who were leaders of the various churches in the country (126). Documentary analysis was then used to analyze the data and profiles. Statistical methods used included weighted mean, frequency counts, and percentages. Further, the researchers set up a particular scale that was used in the interpretation of the data obtained and the degree of involvement of the family members and citizens’ leaders in various activities.
The population used in the study included citizens leaders in charge of different organizations in the school, including academic, cultural, sports, religion, political, socio-civic, health, and the citizens organizations. Notably, most of them were members of the citizens’ organization of the institution. As leaders, they were encouraged to join various groups, including religious and community institutions that would help them broaden their skills, attitudes, and experience in leadership. Indeed, Rosenfeld, Garcia, & Quinet found that through joining different activities, citizens can identify distinct opportunities that enable them to learn about organizing their academic life, improving knowledge, and developing strengths.
According to the statistics, the number of activities organized by most of the groups in the institution is limited; thus, most of them participate in related academic events and religious driven teachings. Essentially, the researcher notes that to enable a full exploitation of the citizens s’ potentials, learning initiatives must be employed, including change in curricula and the establishment of academic units that promote community outreach. Alternatively, some institutions invest in off-campus activities that are designed to help scholars gain from community experience and adopt realistic goals.
The study revealed that 70% citizens believed that the family has to provide essentials, including shelter, food, and social needs, such as beliefs, values, and norms. However, most of the scholars noted that family had a moderate influence on the means of communication, maintenance of order and the patterns of actions, and affection. Notably, an average of 154 people supported the role of the family in ensuring the learning of general life lessons (Rosenfeld, Garcia, & Quinet 153) in summation, the overall weighted mean of the role of the religion was over 80% which depicts a high influence. On the other hand, the school also played a major role, including socialization, cultural transmission, knowledge generation, and talent selection.
The researcher recommended different methods that can be used to increase the influence of social institutions on citizens. Some of them include the administration’s support, the provision of financial assistance for overall citizens’ development, and freedom of groups to organize different events. Additionally, the leaders and the administration should intensify the exposure of their citizens in community training to enable them to differentiate the various concepts in both religious and social developments (Rosenfeld, Garcia, & Quinet 128). Additionally, this would ensure open-mindedness, participation in democracy, skill development, and a proper development among the citizens.
The article provides a critical and unique analysis of the effects of social institutions on the growth in the modern community and how religion plays an important part in formulating people ideologies. I believe that with an efficient allocation of resources, each social institution will be able to play its part in ensuring an adequate growth of citizens. Furthermore, the family, religious institutions and school, as the institutions that have the highest level of influence on citizens s’ activities, should be provided with a well-organized curriculum to ensure the organization of events. However, the researcher fails to elaborate on the different techniques that should be implemented to ensure that each social institution is allocated enough time and responsibilities. Undoubtedly, most of the activities that are assigned to citizens take place in schools and churches. Moreover, the study fails to provide the negative influences of the various social institutions, including religious organizations, and how they can be resolved. Therefore, the government must ensure that both the citizens and their leaders participate fully in the various activities organized by any social group in the community. This can be achieved through training more specialists in the various departments, including sports and entertainment, and developing a diverse curriculum that that will support different activities.
Heise, David R. et al. “Identities, Roles, and Social Institutions.” Order on the Edge of Chaos, 2015, pp. 165-188.
Rosenfeld, Richard, Crystal Garcia, and Kenna Quinet. “Crime and Religion: Assessing The Role Of The Faith Factor.” Contemporary issues in Criminological theory and Research: the role of Social Institutions 1 (2012): 117-167. Web. 9 Oct. 2017. Retrieved from http://www.baylorisr.org/wp-content/uploads/Jang-and-Johnson_Religion-and-Crime1.pdf