Sample Sociology Paper on Social Conflict Theory

Sociologists examine social events, interactions, and prototypes, and they develop theories to explain why many things happen in a particular manner. In sociology, a theory is a way of explaining different features of social interactions and constructing a testable proposition, commonly referred to as a hypothesis. This is the main reason I chose to observe the case based reservation demonstration in India. The Indian anti-reservation protest entailed a series of remonstrations that occurred in India in resistance to the resolution of the Union Government of India. It was led by the Indian National Congress to put into operation reservations for the Other Backward Classes (OBCs) in central and private institutes of higher education. These remonstrations were among the two main dissents against the Indian reservation system. The participants of the demonstrations were mainly students supported by their parents.

Generally, the nation of India is categorized into several endogamous groups, for instance, castes and sub-castes because of the centuries that date back to Varnashrama Dharma (Rathod 2). This social system transformed to “types” or “order”. According to the protestors, all Indians belong to one nation and have equal rights and opportunities to obtain an employment and education. The protesters considered the caste and gender differences unnecessary. The system continues to affect the nation, which is divided and suffers from the reservation system, particularly a group of people that damages its education system. Protesters argued that the nation does not need the reservation system for it to be successful.

One of the social rituals in the government was that reservation was supporting the actions applied by the government for permanent quotas. This fact implied that some positions in private and government institutes were set aside for socially undeveloped and illiterate communities, listed castes and tribes. Demonstrators believe that these practices have been in operation since the nation attained its independence. Leaders, for example, Rajarshee Shahu Maharaj, and Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar established measures to assist the perceived backward category of people. They began offering free education to the affected individuals. The main purpose of reservation was to enhance the living conditions of backward castes and communities. However, according to the demonstrators, the impact of reservation has been stern and destructive.

In the olden days, the castes were ranked high in the Hindu caste chain of command, for instance, Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas, Shudras. The conflict theory states that social structures emanate from the conflict between different classes of people in the society mainly because of limited resources. In this case, the social structure means the organization of society, for example, a society made of employees and employers. However, the conflict theory also mentions that these resources and categories are affected by a social structure that gives rise to a new conflict, hence, the formation of a new social structure. Suppose the structure of employees that work hard for their daily bread in terms of wages from the employers becomes a setback for them and they undertake an industrial action for changes, changes are likely to arise, for instance, the formation of managerial positions for individuals from labor class to participate in organizations’ decisions. Nonetheless, this structure may lead to a conflict and the process may continue. Therefore, we can abridge the whole process by stating that there is never an end to conflicts between individual classes for their own good.

In India, through quota systems, seats are set aside under the caste differences, sexual category differences, and religious conviction differences. The main concept was to have a “Unity in diversity”.  Nonetheless, the protestors argue that if there is unity, then there should be equality. The system, instead of uniting the nation, it is segmenting it.  For example, most of the scholarships are offered to minority classes who are major beneficiaries regardless of their grades. A student from a general class with high-quality marks cannot benefit from this.

Reservation protests in India are an ideal instance of conflict theory. Initially, there was a social construction where a caste of society was repressed. This repression caused a conflict between upper and lower course groups of society. The lower class insisted on the reservation for their uplift. Later, they attained this status but after enormous struggle and deliberates. This great effort was for the wellbeing of their caste. They were provided with reservation, and a few of them developed both socially and economically. Later on, a group of people from the dejected class is developed in all facets but still takes advantage of reservation. This, however, gives rise to a form of conflict between the general and depressed class since the general class faults reservation anchored in caste for this. In its ruling, the Supreme Court stated that there should be a model of “creamy layer” in SC/ST reservation. This was to ensure that the benefiting segment of that class does not take pleasure in advantages of reservation. The conflict between the general and reserved class is also another subject of change in the social structure.




Work Cited

Rathod, Devidas Govind. “Politics of Caste-Based Reservation in India.” Review of Research. Vol. 1, Issue. 12, Sept; 12pp. 1-4.