Sample Sociology Paper on Social Welfare in Canada

Modern Social Welfare in a Global Context

Sustainable social welfare is one of the most commonly practiced in the global context. Whereas the concept of social welfare is perceived to be associated with the ethical imperatives of the government, sustainable social welfare prioritizes the economic imperatives of the government towards its citizens. According to the ethical context of social welfare, the government’s primary responsibility is to help the needy by giving them food, clothing, shelter, and education, among others. Many households may be poor due to a lack of economic opportunities among other reasons. Therefore, government institutions are tasked with assisting and distributing goods and services to needy individuals and households. In this ethical context, many believe that the government’s responsibility is to protect the interests of its citizens. People tend to blame the government when economic opportunities lack or are insufficient.

Sustainable social welfare integrates the concepts of environmental sustainability and the preservation of natural resources for exploitation by future generations. Sustainable social welfare is aimed at ensuring that future generations can maintain specific processes to assist the needy individuals and families (Asheim, Mitra & Tungodden, 2016). Sustainable social welfare practices focus on decentralizing the economic resources to all areas across a country so that every individual can experience the impacts of social, economic, and political decisions. The decentralization of these processes and resources facilitate the creation of employment opportunities to allow people to take control of their economic situations. Besides, it is concerned with offering affordable medical services and education to all households. The social welfare approach is challenging for the government to maintain as it requires huge financial commitments, such as developing the country’s infrastructure. Besides, as the population expands, the demands of needy people also increase, which is a problem as an increase in population leads to an increase in the resources used by the government to cater to people’s social needs.

National Children’s Agenda Analysis

The National Children’s Agenda focuses on providing opportunities such as access to education, basic needs, comprehensive and quality care that allows children to realize their full potentials in various fields. The national children’s agenda should aim at ending the financial segregation of children by allowing children from all backgrounds equal access to similar opportunities Poverty prevents children from poor households from accessing opportunities such as education that enables them to realize their full potentials. In comparison, children from upper socioeconomic households that have sufficient economic resources can access comprehensive and quality care, education, and basic needs enabling them to easily unlock and improve their potentials in the community. The ever-increasing gap between the rich and poor only possess further problems for children coming from poor families and backgrounds as they continue to be locked out of development opportunities while their rich contemporaries exploit the same opportunities.

The fact that children have not yet attained the legal voting age makes them vulnerable to exploitation and exclusion from political and socio-economic processes. In most instances, politicians develop policies that address issues of adults and fail to address those of children because the children cannot help these leaders politically (Jud, Fegert & Finkelhor, 2016). Consequently, the young population lacks many of the opportunities that can help them develop themselves. Many times, the issue is cyclical because the children of these children tend to experience the same problems. This exclusion primarily benefits those in political positions and individuals and households from the upper socioeconomic class.

Alberta Social Policy Framework

The three documents from the Alberta Social Policy Framework, Alberta College of Social Workers Policy Framework, and SUFA address the importance of engaging members of the larger society in policy formulation and implementation. The Alberta Social Policy Framework offers an outline of how the government can formulate and implement policies. The Alberta College of Social Workers Policy Framework outlines the essential recommendation for the Alberta Policy framework to ensure justice and fairness for all (Johnson & Rich, 2011). The fundamental rule of social justice and fairness reflect SUFA’s principle of social union, which emphasizes that the government should obtain the views of its citizens when formulating and implementing social policies.

As a citizen, these principles are essential to me because they enable me to participate in the policy formulation and implementation process. As such, my views and interests can be adequately represented in the established policies. On the other hand, as a social worker, these principles will enable me to increase awareness of the existing systems to improve people’s lives. Many people are usually not aware of the policies established to allow them to access various opportunities. As a social welfare analyst, these principles will provide me with an understanding of the effectiveness of existing public policies. Therefore, it will allow me to participate in the policy formulation and implementation processes and provide recommendations or feedback on issues that I believe need improvements to ensure the lives of all people are improved.

Important Social Movements

Each country has a unique experience with social movements, and the history of social movements in most countries concerns healthcare, immigration, and human rights issues among others. Canada has experienced social movements from the 1920s and 1930s when the rights associations first emerged in the country. These social movements included the Canadian Civil Liberties Union and the Canadian Labour Defense League they were followed by second-generation social movements, including the League for Democratic Rights. These associations demanded equality for all and enhanced the earlier efforts to improve human rights (Smith, 2014). Canada is a multicultural state that includes Whites, Blacks, and Aboriginal, among other races. The Aboriginal population is one of the minor communities in Canada and has special culture-related issues that the government needs to adjust its services to suit the needs of this community. Many associations that have emerged over the years focus on the needs and rights of the Aboriginal population.

LGBTQ has emerged as a community that has unique needs. The community has been on the periphery for a long time due to the lack of recognition of its needs. Consequently, the larger society is yet to acknowledge the LGBTQ community as a population of people with rights and the community is still subjected to discrimination and stigma (Abramovich, 2012). As such, policies should be drawn to protect this group the same way anti-discrimination policies were formulated to protect women against any discriminatory practices.

Social Indicators: Canada in an International Context

Hicks (2008) outlines the rate of employment as one of the social indicators in a country. He mentions that employment is critical as it provides people with income that they can use to purchase basic needs and invest in businesses and other projects. Moreover, he asserts that countries with low levels of employment often experience high levels of poverty as the corresponding governments are unable to provide adequate resources for people to take charge of their economic situations (Hicks, 2008). Therefore, for the government to achieve economic stability, it must provide economic opportunities supported by education and training opportunities to enable people to unlock and realize their full potentials as well as facilitate the creation of more employment opportunities.

Canada’s employment rate is among the highest in the world. According to the organization for economic co-operation and development (OECD) report on employment 2017, Canada’s employment rate is 73.3 percent compared to America’s 70.5 percent and Sweden’s 77 percent. Canada’s employment rate is second after Sweden’s because of its high turnover rate (Been, Caminada, Goudswaard, & van Vliet, 2017). As aforementioned, Canada is a multicultural state, thus, the government has to adjust its services to suit the needs of all individuals. Since it’s extremely difficult for the government to fulfill each individual’s specific employment needs most Canadians frequently quit their jobs due to a lack of motivation. Therefore, the high turnover rate in Canada is justified by the motivation the government gives to its people by satisfying their needs are per the demands.




Abramovich, I. A. (2012). No safe place to go-LGBTQ youth homelessness in Canada: Reviewing the literature. Canadian Journal of Family and Youth/Le Journal Canadien de Famille et de la Jeunesse, 4(1), 29-51. Retrieved from

Asheim, G. B., Mitra, T., & Tungodden, B. (2016). Sustainable recursive social welfare functions. In The Economics of the Global Environment (pp. 165-190). Springer, Cham. Retrieved from

Been, J., Caminada, K., Goudswaard, K., & van Vliet, O. (2017). Public/private pension mix, income inequality, and poverty among the elderly in Europe: An empirical analysis using new and revised OECD data. Social Policy & Administration, 51(7), 1079-1100. Retrieved from

Hicks, P. (2008). Social Policy in Canada–Looking Back, Looking Ahead. Looking Ahead (November 1, 2008). Queens University School of Policy Studies, Working Paper, (46). Retrieved from

Johnson, D., Lalonde, K., McEachern, M., Kenney, J., Mendoza, G., Buffin, A., & Rich, K. (2011). Improving cumulative effects assessment in Alberta: Regional strategic assessment. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 31(5), 481-483. Retrieved from

Jud, A., Fegert, J. M., & Finkelhor, D. (2016). On the incidence and prevalence of child maltreatment: a research agenda. Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health, 10(1), 17. Retrieved from

Smith, M. (Ed.). (2014). Group politics and social movements in Canada. University of Toronto Press.