Sample Sociology Questions on Urbanization


Question 1

The urbanization that is taking place in the developing countries is different from the one that took place in the last century, as there are issues that are in place currently, which were not experienced in the past. The growth of industries the cities is what attract people to them in search of employment. These industries relied on fossil fuels as the main source of energy, and they are responsible for global warming that is experienced globally. Global efforts are underway to phase out the use of fossil fuels. The alternative sources of energy are costlier compared to fossil fuels, and this makes the growth of cities in developed countries restricted. The planning of the cities in the developing countries is often poor resulting in the development of shanties and slums. Lack of resources in the developing countries, diminished opportunities for employment and general poverty of the population are among the problems that face urbanization in these countries.

Question 2

Rapid development via industrialization is achieved by reducing the cost of production, and one of the major costs is energy. So far, the cheapest form of energy is fossil fuels, and their use has resulted in global warming and climate change. The extraction of these fuels and their purification processes use a lot of water and also destroys the natural ecosystem during their extraction. Global warming and climate change is not a localized phenomenon. As a result, it affects the people in the developed countries and also those in the developing ones in equal measure. Some of the dangers posed by climate change are sporadic changes in weather patterns resulting in flash floods and prolonged droughts. Other effects include increased frequency of storms and hurricanes which bring a lot of destruction and death to the affected population.

Question 3

Rural America is facing various problems. These problems include the changing demographics of the population where there is an outflow of young adults and an inflow of older adults. As a result, the birth rates are declining. There is an increased rate of obesity for all age groups in rural America, and this is because the residents are mostly reliant on car transport. There are problems with access to energy, whose cost is going up and heavy reliance on auto transport resulting in climate change implications.

Question 4

Malthus opined that the growth of population is exponential, while the growth of food production is arithmetic. This meant that the rate at which population was growing was significantly higher than the rate of food production growth and that there would come a time when the available food resources in the world would not sustain the needs of the population.

Question 5

Human exceptionalism paradigm states that humans are transcendent over the rest of nature, given their intelligence and culture. The assumption made is that humans can solve all the problems presented to them by nature. The ingenuity and technology that humans are capable of are expected to come up with solutions to all their needs. This belief, however, has been discounted by the damage that humans have brought on the environment by their actions. The very ingenuity and technology that makes man important is the one that has resulted in degradation of the environment. This paradigm has been replaced by humans’ responsibility for nature, meaning that they have to fix the damage that has been inflicted by their activities.