According to the University of Alabama at Birmingham’s article, “Cellular Metabolism Regulates the Fate Decision Between Pathogenic and Regulatory T Cells: Manipulating Cellular Metabolism May Provide A Promising Therapeutic Intervention in Autoimmune Diseases,” patients infected with autoimmune diseases, such as inflammatory bowels, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis have an imbalance of two types of immune system T cells; CD4 T cells and Treg T cells. During the early activation of CD4 T cells, Th17 cells are raised while Treg cells (regulatory T cells) are reduced. The process make it possible for T cells to manipulate cellular metabolism which in turn may aid in therapeutic intervention of prolonged autoimmune problems. Th17 settle chronic inflammation whereas regulatory T cells give suppression to inflammatory responses and also help in protecting the disorders of autoimmune.
Initially when CD4 T cells change to either Th17 or regulatory T cells, there is an alert… Afterward, a fate decision occurs, steering the alternation of CD4 T cells to either inflammatory T cells or regulatory T cells. In the process of differentiation of the Th17, respiration of ATP-linked mitochondria is very important in regulating TCA metabolism and glycolysis. Additionally, it’s essential in inflammation promotion of the central nervous system. According to mouse model experiment, “Th17 cells cause the disease progression. CD4 T cells were differentiated using a combination of Th17-polarizing cytokines. One group was polarized in the presence of oligomycin. Mice receiving the T cells treated with oligomycin showed a significantly delayed onset of disease reduced disease severity.”
In general, Harrington said, “inhibition of mitochondrial OXPHOS ablates Th17 pathogenicity in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis and results in the generation of functionally suppressive Treg cells under Th17 conditions.”
University of Alabama at Birmingham. “Cellular Metabolism Regulates the Fate Decision Between Pathogenic and Regulatory T Cells: Manipulating Cellular Metabolism May Provide A Promising Therapeutic Intervention in Autoimmune Diseases.” ScienceDaily, 26 February 2020. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/02/200226091233.htm