Gender Based Discrimination
Gander based discrimination is in many cases is considered a social issue than an economic issue. That is since it is usually given a social implication in the virtue of rights of the offended and responsibilities of the perpetrators. However, this topic is too complex beyond the visual interpretation it is given. Men as well as women have a role to play in building the economy of a country and subsequent global economic growth. Economics assumes that regardless of input in labor weight of distinct genders, each and every gender has an impactful role to play in building economy (Zafar 63). This role has in many cases been realized when gender discrimination is applied in economic factors of input. It is obvious that women have been alienated for many years in economic production. This discrimination on women has been given malicious reasons such as family responsibilities, social and cultural roles. Nevertheless, economics of gender based discrimination looks at the economic impact that has been experienced as a result of gender based discrimination, particularly discrimination of women on participation in economic production. This has led to exclusion of women in certain managerial roles, employment discrimination, political exclusion, entrepreneurship and economic decision making roles of the nation.
However, with realization of this shortage, affirmative action taken by states and gender organizations has seen an impressive growth in global economy due to inclusion of women into entrepreneurship (Paludi 73). They have been able to run successful business just as men do. Statics show that in 2010, of around 105 million women in around 60 of the world economies ventured into business as sole proprietors and managers that created millions of jobs (Vandenhole 67). This was almost a 30% increase as to what was there in the year 2007. This is a positive indication that women engagement into employment would a more profiting deal. Economics of gender based discrimination then looks at the role of modern women in comparison to their domestic roles. The topic of study has created a varied distinction in the position of the economy given the two angels of women inclusion and exclusion into production functions.
Economic growth is an aggregate product of various factors of input. Gender based discrimination is the variation of roles of economic inputs based on gender. Economic roles are to be divide based on a gender of an individual in question. This has been the trend from time immemorial (Bardes, Barbara, Mack, & Steffen 34). Considering socialism arguments, social composition was mainly subdivided into the two genders, men and women. The roles played by the two genders were divided along gender basis with women affiliated to family roles. They were hence excluded of production roles on grounds of being homemakers rather than producers. Production of good and services was a male’s role. This theory disregarded women’s employment has being a factor in production.
Economics of gender based discrimination gives a different look into this issue. The subject focuses on increased production and growth in country GDP through cross-gender gender inclusion in all factors of production. Such include inclusion of women in employment sector, manufacturing sector, as capital of production through labor buildups, investment and many others. The starting up of businesses around the world by women has had impressive impacts on the economy (Saul, Ben, David, & Jacqueline 64). Women have been able to create employment, increase on household income and consumption, increased investment and savings given back to the society through food, education and healthcare provision. Despite the proven facts on women discrimination as being the stand still to differed women empowerment, some of these barriers are still in existence. It hence demand considering the causes of gender discrimination in all sectors of the economy and challenges faced by women in their economic participation. We can then considered the impact of gender based discrimination by looking the point of empowering women in an economy. Empowerment programs has been used as tools of analyzing gender based discrimination and the economic implication of it.
Women empowerment programs aim to explain the impact of women discrimination in economic production. Such program have done this through two measure gauges; looking at an economy that discriminates its aggregate production based on gender and another that includes gender roles in all sectors of production. According to John Keynes, production of good and services remains inexhaustible with marginal utility with increase in factors of input as long as the resources rea unexhausted (Solotoff, Lawrence & Henry 39). This can applies with use of labor as a factor of input (Ferber, Marianne, & Julie 69). We can have the level of employment increased to increase total production as long as other factors of input are not exhaustible. This can be described as the simplest explanation of exclusion of women in production. This is due according to the State Department’s Economic Security and Employment program argument. This agency belies that unlocking women participation in economic production would be a vital source of economic growth. This is an affirmative action taken by economic growers in increasing aggregate production of the country through engaging women in small business starts up and balancing men to women employment.
The goal of such programs is to ensure that countries around the world realize and appreciate the economic contribution of women in manipulating national economies. Women posse legible potentiality in growing economies and building economic shortages in production. However, this potentiality in women would be enhanced more if barriers that unencumber women’s participation in labor and employment are eliminated. According to a Wallstreet report, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton has put in place the need to realize the need of gender equity in economic production (Riedel 59). This could be best achieved through closing the gap between men and women in reference to the Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation Women and Economy Summit held on September 2011. Through this, implication of economic of input factors have been identified. These are the economic variables that can be used as directs indicators promoting and inclusive economic growth. Such main participatory var1abalrs that women’s role has been impactful include are.
Aggregate Economic Growth
McKinley’s did a study on gender discrimination in determining the role of women in aggregate economic growth. According to McKinney’s study, inclusion of women in economic production increased the aggregate country’s GDP. This impacted greatly through the employment sector (Rodgers 58). He realized that given the same opportunity as men, women are able to women the same hours as men. He study based on comparing the number of hours dedicated to work and output put I terms of labor output for both men and women. Holding other factors constant, including household roles such taking care of children at home, women would be able to give the same number of working house as men do. For instance, if a male worker would give 8hours for work in a day, then a women who is not engage in any family role would take the same number of hours for work. Secondly, he assumes that leisure as factor of labor disposition is likely to affect men than it does to women. A man is likely to give up more hours of work to leisure more so when the wage is low than a women would always do. Women are not attached to leisure as men are to (Rubio-Marin 47). Therefore giving women the same opportunity as men, would apparently impact aggregate output in GDP, even based on the facts that labor units are increased thereby increased in production. McKinley’s study shows an increase of women in the labor industry in United States from 37% to 40% of total employable jobs in the country for over the 40 years. Women’s skills and expertise has also tremendous increased (Figart, Deborah, & Tonia 86). Women have also been able to contribute to a quarter of the overall country’s GDP.
Goldman supports McKinsey’s argument by looking at gender based discrimination from an affirmative action angle. He argues that overcoming of barriers to women labor force participation has also contributed overall economic growth experienced. This has led to more women entering the labor market and have contributed to 9% of the country’s GDP. It is proposes that the world would experience massive aggregate output in production if more women are included in the labor sector. For example, it is projected that China’s overall GDP is likely to strike at its peak in the year 2020 by women contributing to 14% of it.
World Bank reports explains that production mangers are likely to experience a higher increase in productivity from 25% to 40% if they discrimination against women is continued to be eliminated. It also shows that firms who have include women in its management as decision makers have overcome those that still discriminated against women. They have experienced close to 65% return to capital, 53% return on equity and 40% increase on sales particularly when women are include in sales.
Women have been proved to be kin of their societies and families. Women largely invest more on their families as opposed to men (Katz, Elizabeth, & Maria 69). Therefore women ensure family welfares increase (Kearney &Mary-Louise 57). Statistics have also shown that women are better savers than men and these savings are rotated around the homes. They spend their savings on purchasing food, healthcare services and education for their families and societies. They impact their societies by creating more jobs thereby diversifying the economy and improving social status of the societies.
Women are stronger engines for economic growth. Discrimination against women in denying them access to labor and business opportunities is rather discriminating the whole society. This is because their impact is beneficial to the whole society. The government must hence invest in terminating discrimination based on gender as a way of promoting a wholesome economic growth. Input of women in an economy is equally strong and fruitful to the economy (Mäki 59). The society must hence use potentiality of all genders as factors of economic production with no exclusion of any. Equally taking affirmative actions in economics of gender based discrimination would be more fruitful in promoting economic production particularly in the labor market.
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