Sociology Paper on Institutional Discrimination

 Institutional Discrimination

The racist ideology of white supremacy is still common in the United States as it forms the basis for racism and poor ethnic relations. Racial bias does not only occur among individuals, but it is also common in institutions such as schools, the legal system, and the workplace.  In an era of a high economic global competition, it is crucial for countries to enhance national cohesion and development through various measures such as controlling racism.

Learning institutions are among the sectors where racial bias in the United States is common and this has an adverse impact on the future economic success not only of the whole country but also for  sidelined races such as African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans.  Compared to the whites, African American students are three times more likely to be suspended from school due to perceived bad behavior (Shih, Young, and Bucher 146). A majority of the Latino population finds the learning environment in American schools unfriendly because the primary language used in learning is English, which is not their first language. Despite this, most schools do not provide adequate support for students to learn English so that they can compete favorably with their colleagues.  The main issue with ethnic bias in learning institutions on a larger scale affects the country in the form of slow economic development in the near future, considering the high growth rate of among the minority population.

The criminal justice system in the country does not represent an exception in matters related to racial discrimination, where minority races are perceived to be more involved in criminal behavior than the whites (Unnever and Cullen 520). African Americans are punished in a more aggressive way compared to other races. Based on variables such as incarceration rates, police stop, trails, representation of jury, it is evident that racial bias in the United States criminal justice system exists.  Although the whites are involved in criminal acts such as drug abuse as much as the other races, the majority of the prisoners serving sentences related to drugs are African Americans. Compared to the whites, Latinos are more likely to be pulled over by police as they are perceived to be more involved in drug-related crimes.  Further, once arrested, the whites are taken to trial sooner than other races; others take longer awaiting trial. During the trial, the majority of individuals in the criminal jury service are whites, which does not ensure unbiased and fair trial to the members of minority groups.

In the workplace, the whites are more likely to be considered for a job offer compared to other races, due to the belief that they are more skilled. That is a consequence of the racial bias existing in the learning institutions, where also the majority of the qualified job applicants are white. The racial bias in the workplace is influenced by the notion that the whites are more intelligent compared to other races (Harper 25). The result of racial discrimination in the learning institutions, the legal system, and the workplace is reduced social cohesion, which requires swift intervention. There is a dire need for institutions, members of the civil society, and human rights activists, to intensify campaigns against racial bias. The parties, by fighting racism, have the potential to bring about national unity necessary for social, political and economic development.

Works Cited

Harper, Shaun R. “Race without racism: How higher education researchers minimize racist            institutional norms.” The Review of Higher Education 36.1 (2012): 9-29.

Shih, Margaret, Maia J. Young, and Amy Bucher. “Working to reduce the effects of         discrimination: Identity management strategies in organizations.”American    Psychologist 68.3 (2013): 145-150.

Unnever, James D., and Francis T. Cullen. “White perceptions of whether African Americans       and Hispanics are prone to violence and support for the death penalty.” Journal of      Research in Crime and Delinquency 49.4 (2012): 519-544