The study by Kim & Lee (2009) sought to test the effects of various types of supervisory communication on aspects such as burnout and turnover intention among social health workers. For this study, computing was done with the Cronbach’s alphas scale with a result of 0.95 for the job-relevant communication scale, 0.92 for the positive relationship communication scale, as well as 0.77 for the upward communication scale. For role stress, computing was also done with Cronbach’s alpha. Internal consistency and reliability for the collected sample for the RC scale was 0.88 whereas for the RCA scale it was 0.84. The results were also tested using a Chi-Square test and the study correlated the hypotheses given regarding supervisory communication and direct effects on turnover rates.
Different levels of measurement were used in the major variables in this study. One level of measurement used in the major variables was the nominal level of measurement. This is because letters were used to classify the data as can be seen in Table 1. The letters JC represented the variable job-related communication. PC represented the positive relationship communication variable. UC represented the upward communication variable and several others. The ordinal level of measurement was also used in the major variables of the study given the ranking of the variables as can be seen in Table 1. The variable PC is ranked first whereas the salary variable is ranked last.
The statistics used were appropriate when it comes to analyzing the measures. The statistics mainly focus on confirming the hypotheses. The first hypothesis was whether role stress will be positively associated with burnout in social workers. The second was whether burnout will be positively associated with turnover intention in social workers. The use of Cronbach’s alphas for instance revealed 0.95 for the job-relevant communication scale meaning that there is a high probability that job-relevant communication has an influence on burnout among social workers. For the most part, the analyses were inferential as data is used to confirm the hypothesis and estimate parameters.
The conclusion of the study is that high-quality supervision in the form of effective communication practices can prevent burnout and turnover among health social workers. The analytical method used such as the Cronbach’s alphas scale with a result of 0.95 for the job-relevant communication scale confirms this conclusion thus contributing to confidence in the conclusion reached.
The study by Kim, Ji, & Kao (2011) examined the relationship between burnout and physical health and it mainly used data from a longitudinal study of social workers. The study encompasses statistical analyses that are important in the conclusions ultimately arrived at. The aspects that were measured in the study include physical health complaints, burnout, and other control variables such as age, gender, field tenure, and annual salary. For instance, for physical health complaints, scores were computed by averaging the responses whereby high scores pointed to greater severity. Each respondent’s change scores were further computed through subtracting wave 2 physical health score from the scores in wave 3. The computing was done with the Cronbach’s alpha scale with results for sleep disturbance .80, headaches .92, respiratory infections .86, and gastrointestinal problems .78. For burnout, the computing was also done with the Cronbach’s alpha scale with results of .91 for emotional exhaustion and .75 for depersonalization. The results were also analyzed using the one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) that tested whether the three burnout groups were different in terms of subsequent physical health complaint scores.
This study used various levels of measurement for its major variables. One of the levels of measurement used is the ordinal level of measurement. In Table 2, the various variables are ranked in order with wage ranked first, gender second, age third, and change in PHC ranked seventh. Also, there is the use of specific names or words in classifying the variables as can be seen in Table 1, which points to the use of the nominal level of measurement. The author also uses the ratio level of measurement for most part of the study.
The statistics sed in the study are appropriate when it comes to analyzing the measures used. The key measures in the study are physical health complaints, burnout, and other control variables such as age, gender, field tenure, and annual salary. The statistics reveal the correlation between the measures hence their appropriateness. For instance, the statistics used reveal that burnout results in physical health complaints among social workers. The statistical analyses are inferential as they are used to confirm or infer certain prospects in the study.
The study concludes that burnout results in health complications among health social workers hence the need for the social work profession and all stakeholders involved to deal with the problem. The analytical method used in the study confirms a correlation between measures such as burnout and physical health complaints. As such, the analytical method contributes to confidence in the conclusion reached.
Wagaman, Geiger, Shockley, & Segal (2015) explored the relationship between various components including empathy, secondary traumatic stress, burnout, as well as compassion. The study measured items such as race or ethnicity, gender, age, and the highest education level. It also measured aspects such as empathy, compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress. The measurement of each of these items relied on a five-point Likert scale that ranged from 1(never) to 5 (very often). The ProQOL was identified as a valid and reliable measure for aspects such as compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction. The resulted were also analyzed using multiple regression analysis with a focus on three models. The first was with the dependent variable of burnout. The second was with the dependent variable of satisfaction and the third was with the dependent variable of secondary traumatic stress.
Various levels of measurement were used in the major variables of the study. One of the levels of measurement used is the nominal level of measurement that is evident in Table 1 where names are used to classify the various variables. The ordinal level of measurement has also been used in the major variables as can be seen in the use of operators such as > and < in the results section of the study.
The statistics used in the study are appropriate when it comes analyzing the measures used. Some of the measures include gender, race or ethnicity, highest level of education, age, empathy, burnout, compassion satisfaction, and secondary traumatic stress. The fact that the statistics reveal a correlation between the measures implies their appropriateness. For instance, the statistics reveal that a measure such as empathy can prevent or reduce burnout and secondary traumatic stress while at the same time increasing compassion satisfaction. The statistical analyses in the study are inferential as they infer various prospects in the study.
The study concludes that empathy can be used in the preparation of social work professionals to cope with various aspects related to secondary traumatic stress and burnout. The analytical method used in the study confirms a correlation between various measures such as empathy and burnout. As such, the analytic method contributes to confidence in the study’s conclusions.
Kim, H., & Lee, S. Y. (2009). Supervisory Communication, Burnout, And Turnover Intention Among Social Workers in Health Care Settings. Social Work in Health Care, 48(4), 364-385. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00981380802598499
Kim, H., Ji, J., & Kao, D. (2011). Burnout and Physical Health Among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study. Social Work, 56(3), 258-268. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/sw/article/56/3/258/1870802
Wagaman, M. A., Geiger, J. M., Shockley, C., & Segal, E. A. (2015). The Role of Empathy in Burnout, Compassion Satisfaction, And Secondary Traumatic Stress Among Social Workers. Social Work, 60(3), 201-209. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/sw/article-abstract/60/3/201/2280639?redirectedFrom=fulltext