Theory of Knowledge
Ethical criticism is an art involving moral considerations in the assessment and interpretation of originality, outlining rules to be adhered to in establishment of art as well as authenticity. Ethics proponents strongly argue that art’s aesthetic appeal should be determined by its moral value while autonomous value states that art should be assessed based aesthetic appeal and not moral standards (O’Neill and Bartram, 2013).
The reason one would offer to enhance arguments presented in various situations has to evaluate epistemologically via scientific ideas generation. Logical argument application in the decision making process is also one of the methods of understanding other people’s interests as far as discussions are concerned. The theory is also a quality measure of a person’s thought in the event of assessment as well as decision making process.
Scientific studies may collide with community values and this can generate constraint and tension to actions that can be employed as well as the information that is being relayed to the general public. Even so, conflict does not necessarily mean that the generated idea proven via whichever strategy is wrong. The idea of informed agreement in scientific studies calls for the respondents of the research to be well informed of the effects and benefits of the study to help incorporate the rights of the individual (Gerwen, 2002).
Additionally, autonomy generated offers protection to human and animal subjects from liberty, integrity and veracity assault.
Informed consent on the hand puts the interests of the person above that of the society and above science. Therefore, as a researcher, a person cannot control their decision to back out from the study.
The two philosophical explanations and art assessments according to O’Neill and Bartram are seen as problematic and inappropriate based on the fact that they are based on irrelevant arguments. In relevance to areas of knowledge as well as ways of understanding, the foundations are also seen as inadequate since they ignore focal art aspects and aesthetic appeal.
The approach to provide a clear definition of how art differs from cultural aspects including political speeches since they fail to highlight the criterion utilized in judgments on the unique art features. One area of knowing and way of understanding is the application of scientific study, where formulation stage of hypothesis features the need to have capability to determine the impact of the study for instance, the benefits as well as consideration that it will not cause any form of harm.
Even so, this study disputes the hypothesis thus, raising ethical issues on the validity of the practice. If the subjects are humans for example, the researcher should promise to protect the subject’s identity and to ensure the findings of the study will not lead to victimization (O’Neill and Bartram, 2013). What’s more, a person cannot be forced to offer information and has freedom to provide or withhold the details. This can affect the study’s credibility and validity of the findings.
Moral queries represent another learning strategy. Ethics is rooted deeply in areas that make ethical inquiry of life and applied principles constrain the choices, actions and considerations of the study’s disposal (Gerwen, 2002). Theorists also argue that morals serve to guide the decision making process and to ensure it doesn’t exploit the participants via unjust decisions (Jamestown, 2010).
Scientific study just like any other research study is based on different people, applicable community and social values. Ethics also call for the adherence of rules and guidelines protecting subject’s dignity by the researcher thus, allowing for publication of truthful details that meet scientific and academic standards.
The scientific research method of understanding the privacy of the subject, as a result, the subject cannot be forced to provide personal details including level of income, marital status and age among others (Johnstone, 2009). However, withholding private details that are considered highly valuable for the study pose a great challenge in the process of the study and the ability to generate valid results for the study.
The use of animals as research subjects according to the global society for applied ethology has generated many ethical issues over time. Researchers are therefore expected to justify the use
Of animals in their behavioral study and to adhere to written guidelines as a way of ensuring the study is carried out in an acceptable way (Jameton, 2010).
Before using animals as research subjects, a researcher should evaluate the likely pain and distress that the animal may be subjected to and whether in is acceptable in any given context. In the event where a research proposal does not offer benefits of the study, researchers may be denied to test scientific processes that are significant in innovations.
Ethics according to O’Neil and Bartram (2013) aids in the creation of art process as it offers students and staff an opportunity to learn of moral issues concerning art practice. The practice of art also involves focus on humans and animals, the dead and the living, use of body parts, sensual imagery and the implication of psychological or physical self-injury.
In these strategies, ethics and knowledge areas enhance professionalism of art practice via review of project amendments and creating models that are more likely to ensure implementation of acceptable practices. In art creation, the invisibility of morals is an indication of fear that many artists fear to appear as if they are preventing creativity as well as censoring production of art. Knowledge recognition can be passed in the form of art and it has prompted many people to pursue it to higher levels such as PHD levels leading to examination of moral issues regarding art practice.
Gerwen (2002) on the other hand states that analysis of moral and autonomous art content as a way and area of knowledge is quite difficult because theorists struggle to establish the right assessments as well as interpretations. Gerwen also states that moral and autonomous contributions force artists to follow specific standards and this promotes originality and authenticity.
For example, even though there are judicial punishments for low quality art works, the creation of an artist can be pushed to oblivion. Ethical norms guide research goals in scientific research to ensure the study is up to mark (Johnstone, 2009). Adhering to the norms in the study as well as generation of knowledge process also enhances such aspects including avoidance of error, the facts and creation of the body of knowledge.
Researchers for instance are prohibited from fabrication and research misinterpretation of data as this helps to promote the truth and to ensure validity of the study findings (Anon, 2001). Additionally, it enables researchers to maintain records and to be accountable for allocation of public funds for the study. Additionally, the trust generated from upholding ethical norms exhibits the integrity and the quality of the study thus enabling the project to enjoy public support.
A research process that does not follow ethical principles can be harmful to participants and the general public because it employs harmful practice and can release harmful research findings. Fabricated information for instance in clinical trials can harm or lead to death of patients such as in the event where the researcher does not abide by regulations governing radiation, thus, jeopardizing the health of research subjects.
The legitimacy of the declaration, ‘knowledge is nothing more than organization of facts’’ differs based on the concept. In natural sciences for example, knowledge is mainly facts generated from scientific research. In social sciences and arts on the other hand, knowledge can change based on cultural and societal aspects thus, lacking a systematic facts organization (Resnik, 2011).
Knowledge can also be broke down into different categories in natural sciences including facts and generated categories that can be systematically organized to meet the expected classification. In social sciences however, it can be quite difficult to break down information because knowledge is based on personal perception and facts can only be generated from true events referencing.
In conclusion, examination as a major method and area of knowledge brings together stakeholders and different institutions and concerns ethical guidelines adherence that enhance ethical values including fairness, accountability and trust. Patenting rights and authorship guidelines for example enhance collaboration and the rights of intellectual property.
Ethical norms also enhance responsibility based on the fact that researchers can be held responsible for the findings they release to the public. Ethical organizations also impose federal policies on study misconduct, human subject’s protection as well as animals. Knowledge includes facts organization in a systematic manner and even so, presented information can be changed
The final aim is to generate the most ideal platform for decision making. With accurate scientific study and logical argument, a person can use his or her knowledge to reach a conclusion that would remain illogical if such was to be predetermined based on the objectives. Assessment of personal interests in the event where a person is an issue that determines the final verdict, one would give in the decision making.
Reaching clear and distinctive decisions needs a clear review of earlier made decisions and connection to proceedings case to determine if the decision stands the test of time. If the expectations of the ruling as per the objectives of the study contradict the initial choices, one will have to adjust the statement and offer a renewed choice that is more modern.
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Anon Raymond, Guidelines for psychologists working with animals. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Section B – Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 2001. 54: 81-91
David Resnik, What is Ethics in Research & Why is it Important? (2011), http://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/bioethics/whatis/, retrieved on 31st December 2013
Jamestown Arnold. Nursing Practice. The ethical issues. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2010
Johnstone Michaels. Bioethics. A Nursing Perspective. 5th edition Churchil Livingstone Elsevier, 2009
Mary O’ Neill and Angela Bartram, (2013). Art and Ethics, http://www.bartramoneill.com/#/ethics/4538323029, retrieved on 31st December 2013
Rob van Gerwen, “Address or Intimation,” in Jaarboek voor Esthetica, Ed. Frans van Peperstraten, Rotterdam: Nederlands Genootschap Voor Esthetica (2002) Pp. 126-37 www.nge.nl/Jaarboek2002/10gerwen.pdf)